References

This page lists all of the references used within the species pages and elsewhere in the UK Butterflies website. In addition, it contains references to many books that have shaped our understanding of the butterflies of the British Isles (and, when not referenced by one of the species pages, has a light grey background). When available online, the references include a link to the publication and any relevant plates. The hope is that this listing will benefit any visitors wanting to research the British butterflies. If you find any omissions then please let us know. Finally, such a listing would not be possible if it were not for the summaries provided in Ford (1945), Salmon (2000) and, especially, Dunbar (2010). As such, these books are highly recommended.

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ReferenceDetails
Ackery (1984) Ackery, P.R. (1984) Systematic and Faunistic Studies on Butterflies. The Biology of Butterflies. Symposium of the Royal Entomological Society of London Number 11 [Edited by R.I. Vane-Wright and P.R. Ackery].
Adams (1854) Adams, H.G. (1854) Beautiful Butterflies; the British Species Described and Illustrated.
Agassiz (2013) Agassiz, D.J.L., Beavan, S.D. and Heckford, R.J. (2013) Checklist of the Lepidoptera of the British Isles.
Agassiz, Beavan & Heckford (2016) Agassiz, D.J.L, Beavan, S.D. and Heckford, R.J. (2016) Corrigenda to a Checklist of the Lepidoptera of the British Isles, 2013. Entomologist's Record and Journal of Variation.
Albin (1720) Albin, E. (1720) A Natural History of English Insects: Illustrated with a Hundred Copper Plates, Curiously Engraven from the Life.
This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [Favonius quercus], [Maniola jurtina], [Pieris brassicae], [Pieris napi], [Thecla betulae]
Aldwell & Smyth (2015) Aldwell, R. & Smyth, F. (2015) The Butterflies of Donegal.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Erynnis tages ssp. baynesi, p.27], [Hipparchia semele ssp. clarensis, p.69], [Pararge aegeria ssp. oblita, pp.64-65], [Pieris napi ssp. thomsoni, p.37], [Polyommatus icarus ssp. mariscolore, p.48]
Allan (1949) Allan, P.B.M. (1949) Larval Foodplants.
Asher (2001) Asher, J., Warren, M., Fox, R., Harding, P., Jeffcoate, G. and Jeffcoate, S. (2001) The Millennium Atlas of Butterflies in Britain and Ireland.
Aurivillius (1925) Aurivillius, C. (1925) In Seitz: Die Großschmetterlinge der Erde.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subfamilies: [Heteropterinae: Vol.13, p.546]
Austin (1856) Austin, H. (1856) Parnassius Apollo at Ealing. Zoologist.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Parnassius apollo: Vol.14, p.5109]
Ball (1914) Ball, F.J. (1914) Le Dimorphisme Saisonnier des Androcinia Chez Certains Rhopalocères. Annales de la Société entomologique de Belgique.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Lasiommata megera: Vol.58, p.177]
Barrett (1892) Barrett, C.G. (1892) Occurrence of Syrichthus alveus, Hüb., in England. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Pyrgus armoricanus: Vol.28, pp.244-245]
Barrett (1893) Barrett, C.G. (1893) The Lepidoptera of the British Islands (Vol.1 Rhopalocera).
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Apatura ilia, pp.110-111], [Parnassius apollo, p.311], [Plebejus argus ssp. cretaceus, pp.70-73, Plate xi (Fig.1)], [Pyrgus armoricanus, pp.272-274, Plate 37 (Fig. 2)], [Satyrium spini, p.48]
Baynes (1954) Baynes, E.S.A. (1954) The Annual Exhibition - Record of Exhibits. Proceedings of the South London Entomological and Natural History Society.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Erynnis tages ssp. baynesi: Vol.1954, p.17]
Beaufoy (1947) Beaufoy, S. (1947) Butterfly Lives.
Behr (1864) Behr, H. (1864) On Californian Lepidoptera. No. IV.. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subfamilies: [Limenitidinae: Vol.3 (Series 1), p.127]
This reference is used in the original description of the following tribes: [Limenitidini: Vol.3 (Series 1), p.127]
Beirne (1985) Beirne, B.P. (1985) Irish Entomology: The First Hundred Years. The Irish Naturalists' Journal.
Berge & Rebel (1910) Berge, F. and Rebel, H. (1910) Fr. Berge's Schmetterlingsbuch nach dem gegenwärtigen Stande der Lepidopterologie neu bearbeitet und herausgegeben von Professor Dr. H. Rebel.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Papilio machaon ssp. gorganus, Plate 1]
Berger (1948) Berger, L.A. (1948) A Colias New to Britain. The Entomologist.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Colias alfacariensis]
This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [Colias alfacariensis]
Berkenhout (1769) Berkenhout, J. (1769) Outlines of the Natural History of Great Britain and Ireland (Vol.1 Animal Kingdom).
This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [Aphantopus hyperantus], [Hipparchia semele], [Lycaena phlaeas], [Pieris brassicae], [Pyrgus malvae]
Billberg (1820) Billberg, G.J. (1820) Enumeratio insectorum in Museo.
This reference is used in the original description of the following genera: [Callophrys, p.80], [Colobura, p.79], [Hylephila, p.81], [Leptidea, p.76]
Birchall (1873) Birchall, E. (1873) The Lepidoptera of Ireland. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Euphydryas aurinia: Vol.X, p.154]
Boisduval (1833) Boisduval, J.A. (1833) Icones historiques des Lépidoptères d'Europe nouveaux.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subfamilies: [Danainae, p.84], [Satyrinae, p.128]
This reference is used in the original description of the following tribes: [Danaini, p.84], [Satyrini, p.128]
Boisduval (1836) Boisduval, J.A. (1836) Histoire naturelle des insectes; spécies général des lépidoptères.
This reference is used in the original description of the following tribes: [Brassolini: Vol.1, p.24, Plate 13]
Boisduval (1840) Boisduval, J.A. (1840) Genera et index methodicus Europaeorum lepidopterum.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subfamilies: [Apaturinae, p.24]
This reference is used in the original description of the following tribes: [Apaturini, p.24]
Boisduval, Rambur & Graslin (1833) Boisduval, J.A., Rambur, P. & Graslin, A. (1833) Collection iconographique et historique des chenilles; ou, Description et figures des chenilles d'Europe, avec l'histoire de leurs métamorphoses, et des applications à l'agriculture.
This reference is used in the original description of the following genera: [Anthocharis, Plate 5]
Bowden (1970) Bowden, S.R. (1970) Pieris napi L.: Speciation and Subspeciation (Lep., Pieridae). Proceedings and Transactions of the British Entomological and Natural History Society.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Pieris napi ssp. britannica, pp.63-70]
Bowden (1975) Bowden, S.R. (1975) Some Subspecific and Infrasubspecific Names in Pieris napi L. (Lep.: Pieridae). Entomologist's Record and Journal of Variation.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Pieris napi ssp. sabellicae: Vol.87, pp.153-156]
Bradley & Bradley (2000) Bradley, D.J. and Bradley, M.J. (2000) Checklist of Lepidoptera Recorded from the British Isles. Edition 2.
Bradley & Fletcher (1979) Bradley, J.D. and Fletcher, D.S. (1979) A Recorder's Log Book or Label List of British Butterflies and Moths.
Brakefield (1992) Brakefield, P.M. and Shreeve, T.G. (1992) Case Studies in Evolution. The Ecology of Butterflies in Britain.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Coenonympha tullia, pp.197-216]
Bright & Leeds (1938) Bright, P.M. and Leeds, H.A. (1938) A Monograph of the British Aberrations of the Chalk-Hill Blue Butterfly.
Brooks & Knight (1982) Brooks, M. and Knight, C. (1982) A Complete Guide to British Butterflies.
Brown (1832) Brown, T. (1832) The book of butterflies, sphinxes and moths.
This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [Argynnis aglaja], [Danaus plexippus], [Parnassius apollo], [Pieris brassicae], [Polyommatus icarus]
Buckler (1886) Buckler, W. (1886) The Larvae of the British Butterflies and Moths (Vol.1).
Buckler (1887) Buckler, W. (1887) The Larvae of the British Butterflies and Moths (Vol.2).
Buckler (1889) Buckler, W. (1889) The Larvae of the British Butterflies and Moths (Vol.3).
Buckler (1891) Buckler, W. (1891) The Larvae of the British Butterflies and Moths (Vol.4).
Buckler (1893) Buckler, W. (1893) The Larvae of the British Butterflies and Moths (Vol.5).
Buckler (1895) Buckler, W. (1895) The Larvae of the British Butterflies and Moths (Vol.6).
Buckler (1897) Buckler, W. (1897) The Larvae of the British Butterflies and Moths (Vol.7).
Buckler (1899) Buckler, W. (1899) The Larvae of the British Butterflies and Moths (Vol.8).
Buckler (1901) Buckler, W. (1901) The Larvae of the British Butterflies and Moths (Vol.9).
Buddle (1700) Buddle, Revd. A. (1700) [Herbarium, preserved in the Botany department of the Natural History Museum, London].
This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [Argynnis aglaja]
Burmeister (1878) Burmeister, H., Daireaux, E. and Maupas, E. (1878) Description physique de la République Argentine: d'après des observations personnelles et étrangères par H. Burmeister ; traduit de l'allemant par E. Maupas.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subfamilies: [Pyrginae: Vol.5(1), p.245]
Butler (1869) Butler, A.G. (1869) Catalogue of diurnal Lepidoptera described by Fabricius in the collection of the British museum.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subfamilies: [Theclinae, p.179]
Butler (1898) Butler, A.G. (1898) Proceedings of the general meetings for scientific business of the Zoological Society of London.
This reference is used in the original description of the following genera: [Cacyreus, p.845]
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Cacyreus marshalli, pp.835-857, Plate L]
Carter (1986) Carter, D.J. (1986) A Field Guide to Caterpillars of Butterflies and Moths in Britain and Europe.
Catlow (1848) Catlow, M. (1848) Popular British Entomology (1852 edition).
Chalmers-Hunt (1970) Chalmers-Hunt, J.M. (1970) The Butterflies and Moths of the Isle of Man. Transactions of the Society for British Entomology.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Anthocharis cardamines ssp. hibernica: Vol.19, pp.53-55], [Maniola jurtina ssp. splendida, pp.64-65], [Pieris napi ssp. britannica, p.53]
Chapman (1895) Chapman, T.A. (1895) Scheme of Classification of the Rhopalocera Founded on the Structure of the Pupae. Entomologist's Record and Journal of Variation.
This reference is used in the original description of the following tribes: [Luehdorfiini: Vol.6, p.151]
Coleman (1860) Coleman, W.S. (1860) British Butterflies.
This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [Boloria dia], [Lampides boeticus], [Papilio machaon], [Polyommatus bellargus]
Coleman (1895) Coleman, W.S. (1895) British Butterflies. Edition 2.
Coleman (1897) Coleman, W.S. (1897) British Butterflies. Edition 3.
This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [Thymelicus lineola]
Cooke (1943) Cooke, B.H. (1943) The Scottish Race of Erebia epiphron. The Entomologist.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Erebia epiphron ssp. scotica: Vol.76, p.105]
Cooke (1946) Cooke, B.H. (1946) Papilio machaon in North West France. Entomologist's Record and Journal of Variation.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Papilio machaon ssp. britannicus: Vol.58, pp.126-127]
Cramer (1775) Cramer, P. (1775) De uitlandsche kapellen voorkomende in de drie waereld-deelen Asia, Africa en America, by een verzameld en beschreeven.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Caligo illioneus, p.81, Plate LII]
Curtis (1840) Curtis, J. (1840) British Entomology [1823-1840].
This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [Satyrium pruni], [Thymelicus acteon]
Dale (1890) Dale, C.W. (1890) The History of Our British Butterflies.
Dalman (1816) Dalman, J.W. (1816) Kongl. Svenska Vetenskaps akademiens Handlingar.
This reference is used in the original description of the following genera: [Aglais, p.56], [Cyaniris, p.63], [Erebia, p.58]
Davies (1992) Davies, M. (1992) The White-letter Hairstreak Butterfly.
Denis & Schiffermüller (1775) Denis, J.N.C.M. and Schiffermüller, I. (1775) Systematischez Verzeichniss der Schmetterlinge der Wienergegend.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Apatura ilia ssp. ilia f. clytie], [Apatura ilia, p.172], [Arethusana arethusa, p.169], [Argynnis adippe, p.177], [Argynnis pandora, p.176], [Aricia agestis, p.184], [Boloria selene, p.321], [Nymphalis xanthomelas, p.175], [Polyommatus dorylas, p.322], [Satyrium spini, p.186], [Zerynthia polyxena, p.162]
Dennis (1972) Dennis, R.L.H. (1972) Eumenis semele (L) thyone Thompson (Lep. Satyridae). A Microgeographical Race. Entomologist's Record and Journal of Variation.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Hipparchia semele ssp. thyone: Vol.84, pp.1-11]
Dennis (1977) Dennis, R.L.H. (1977) The British Butterflies - Their Origin and Establishment.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Anthocharis cardamines ssp. hibernica, p.143], [Argynnis aglaja, pp.145-146], [Boloria selene, p.146], [Erebia aethiops, pp.153-154], [Euphydryas aurinia, pp.147-148], [Hipparchia semele ssp. atlantica, p.148], [Hipparchia semele ssp. hibernica, pp.148-149], [Hipparchia semele ssp. scota, p.148], [Maniola jurtina ssp. cassiteridum, pp.154-161], [Maniola jurtina ssp. iernes, pp.154-161], [Maniola jurtina ssp. splendida, pp.154-161], [Papilio machaon ssp. britannicus, p.140], [Pararge aegeria ssp. oblita, p.169], [Pieris napi ssp. sabellicae, pp.140-142], [Plebejus argus, pp.171-174], [Polyommatus icarus ssp. mariscolore, pp.177-179]
Dennis (1993) Dennis, R.L.H. (1993) Butterflies and Climate Change.
Dennis & Shreeve (1996) Dennis, R.L.H and Shreeve, T.G. (1996) Butterflies on British and Irish Offshore Islands.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Hipparchia semele ssp. scota, p.84], [Pieris napi ssp. thomsoni, p.82]
Derham (1713) Derham, W. (1713) Physico-theology, Or, A Demonstration of the Being and Attributes of God from His Works of Creation (1720 edition).
Donovan (1792) Donovan, E. (1792) The Natural History of British Insects (Vol.1).
Donovan (1793) Donovan, E. (1793) The Natural History of British Insects (Vol.2).
Donovan (1794) Donovan, E. (1794) The Natural History of British Insects (Vol.3).
Donovan (1795) Donovan, E. (1795) The Natural History of British Insects (Vol.4).
Donovan (1796) Donovan, E. (1796) The Natural History of British Insects (Vol.5).
Donovan (1797) Donovan, E. (1797) The Natural History of British Insects (Vol.6).
This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [Coenonympha tullia], [Maculinea arion]
Donovan (1798) Donovan, E. (1798) The Natural History of British Insects (Vol.7).
This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [Argynnis paphia], [Lycaena dispar]
Donovan (1799) Donovan, E. (1799) The Natural History of British Insects (Vol.8).
This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [Leptidea sinapis], [Vanessa atalanta]
Donovan (1800) Donovan, E. (1800) The Natural History of British Insects (Vol.9).
Donovan (1801) Donovan, E. (1801) The Natural History of British Insects (Vol.10).
Donovan (1806) Donovan, E. (1806) The Natural History of British Insects (Vol.11).
Donovan (1807) Donovan, E. (1807) The Natural History of British Insects (Vol.12).
This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [Erebia aethiops]
Donovan (1808) Donovan, E. (1808) The Natural History of British Insects (Vol.13).
This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [Satyrium w-album]
Donovan (1810) Donovan, E. (1810) The Natural History of British Insects (Vol.14).
Donovan (1811) Donovan, E. (1811) The Natural History of British Insects (Vol.15).
Donovan (1813) Donovan, E. (1813) The Natural History of British Insects (Vol.16).
This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [Aricia artaxerxes], [Pyrgus malvae]
Doubleday (1847) Doubleday, E. (1847) List of the Specimens of Lepidopterous Insects in the Collection of the British Museum.
This reference is used in the original description of the following tribes: [Eumaeini: Vol.2, p.20]
Doubleday (1849) Doubleday, E. and Westwood, J.O. (1849) The genera of diurnal lepidoptera : comprising their generic characters, a notice of their habits and transformations, and a catalogue of the species of each genus.
This reference is used in the original description of the following genera: [Opsiphanes: Vol.2, Plate LVII (Figs 1, 2, 3)]
Dowdeswell (1981) Dowdeswell, W.H. (1981) The Life of the Meadow Brown.
Drury (1773a) Drury, D. (1773) Illustrations of Natural History (Vol.1).
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Hylephila phyleus: Vol.1, p.25, Plate XIII], [Vanessa virginiensis, p.23, Plate V]
Drury (1773b) Drury, D. (1773) Illustrations of Natural History (Vol.2).
Duméril (1806) Duméril, A.M.C. (1806) Zoologie analytique.
This reference is used in the original description of the following genera: [Heteropterus, p.271]
Dunbar (1993) Dunbar, D. (1993) Saving Butterflies.
Dunbar (2010) Dunbar, D. (2010) British Butterflies - a History in Books.
Duncan (1835) Duncan, J. (1835) The Natural History of British Butterflies (1940 reissue).
Duncan (1836) Duncan, J. (1836) The Natural History of British Moths, Sphinxes (Vol.4).
Duncan (1855) Duncan, J. (1855) British Butterflies.
Duponchel (1835) Duponchel, P.A.J. (1835) Histoire naturelle des lépidoptères ou papillons de France, par M. J.-B. Godart. Continuée par P.-A.-J. Duponchel. Diurnes. Supplément aux tomes premier et deuxième.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subfamilies: [Parnassiinae: Vol.1, p.380], [Pierinae: Vol.1, p.381]
This reference is used in the original description of the following tribes: [Parnassiini: Vol.1, p.380]
Dutfield (1748-1749) Dutfield, J. (1748-1749) A new and complete natural history of English moths and butterflies.
This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [Anthocharis cardamines], [Melitaea cinxia], [Vanessa atalanta]
Eecke (1915) van Eecke, R. (1915) Bijdrage tot de kennis der Nederlandsche Lycaena-soorten. Zoologische Mededeelingen.
This reference is used in the original description of the following genera: [Maculinea: Vol.1, p.28]
Eltringham (1923) Eltringham, H. (1923) Butterfly Lore.
Emmet (1990) Emmet, A.M. and Heath, J. (1990) The Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Argynnis aglaja, p.228], [Hylephila phyleus, p.64], [Parnassius apollo, pp.73-75]
This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [Araschnia levana], [Argynnis pandora]
Esper (1777) Esper, E.J.C (1777) Die Schmetterlinge in Abbildungen nach der Natur mit Beschreibungen.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Erebia aethiops: Vol.1, p.312, Plate 25]
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Pieris napi: Vol.suppl., p.119, Plate CXVI]
Esper (1779) Esper, E.J.C. (1779) Die Schmetterlinge in Abbildungen nach der Natur mit Beschreibungen.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Melitaea didyma: Vol.1, p.365, Plate XVII], [Ochlodes sylvanus: Vol.1, p.343, Plate XXXVI], [Satyrium ilicis, p.353, Plate XXXIX (Fig. 1)]
Esper (1780) Esper, E.J.C (1780) Die europäischen Schmetterlinge.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Carcharodus alceae: Vol.2, p.4, Plate LI]
Esper (1800) Esper, E.J.C. (1800) Die Schmetterlinge in Abbildungen nach der Natur mit Beschreibungen.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Argynnis paphia ssp. paphia f. valesina: Vol.1, p.73, Plate CVII]
Evans (1955) Evans, W.H. (1955) A catalogue of the American Hesperiidae indicating the classification and nomenclature adopted in the British Museum Natural History.
This reference is used in the original description of the following genera: [Saliana: Vol.4, p.400, 442]
Fabricius (1775) Fabricius, J.C (1775) Systema entomologiae: sistens insectorum classes, ordines, genera, species.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Argynnis cybele, p.516], [Dryas julia, p.509]
Fabricius (1777) Fabricius, J.C. (1777) Genera Insectorum.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Coenonympha tullia ssp. davus, p.259]
Fabricius (1787) Fabricius, J.C. (1787) Mantissa insectorum sistens species nuper detectas.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Junonia villida: Vol.2, p.35]
Fabricius (1793) Fabricius, J.C. (1793) Entomologia systematica emendata et aucta, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species.
This reference is used in the original description of the following genera: [Hesperia, p.285]
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Aricia artaxerxes: Vol.3, p.297], [Hypanartia lethe: Vol.3, p.80], [Parnassius phoebus: Vol.3, p.181]
Fabricius (1798) Fabricius, J.C. (1798) Supplementum Entomologiae Systematicae.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Lycaena phlaeas ssp. eleus, p.430]
Fabricius (1807) Fabricius, J.C. (1807) Magazin für Insektenkunde, herausgegeben von Karl Illiger.
This reference is used in the original description of the following genera: [Apatura, p.280], [Argynnis, p.283], [Colias, p.284], [Hipparchia, p.281], [Limenitis, p.281], [Lycaena, p.285], [Melitaea, p.284], [Pontia, p.283], [Thecla, p.286], [Vanessa, p.281]
This reference is used in the original description of the following subgenera: [Argynnis, p.283], [Hipparchia, p.281]
Felder & Felder (1861) Felder, C. and Felder, R. (1861) Lepidoptera nova Columbiae. Wiener entomologische monatschrift.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Opsiphanes tamarindi, p.111]
Feltwell (1995) Feltwell, J. (1995) The Conservation of Butterflies in Britain Past and Present.
Ford (1945) Ford, E.B. (1945) Butterflies.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Anthocharis cardamines ssp. hibernica, p.301], [Boloria selene, p.293], [Coenonympha tullia, pp.292-293], [Euphydryas aurinia, pp.294-295], [Maculinea arion ssp. eutyphron, pp.299-300, Plate 12], [Papilio machaon ssp. britannicus, p.302], [Pieris napi ssp. britannica, pp.300-301], [Polyommatus icarus ssp. mariscolore, pp.298-299]
Fox (2006) Fox, R., Asher, J., Brereton, T., Roy, D. and Warren, M. (2006) The State of Butterflies in Britain and Ireland.
Fox (2015) Fox, R., Brereton, T.M., Asher, J., August, T.A., Botham, M.S., Bourn, N.A.D., Cruickshanks, K.L., Bulman, C.R., Ellis, S., Harrower, C.A., Middlebrook, I., Noble, D.G., Powney, G.D., Randle, Z., Warren, M.S. & Roy, D.B. (2015) The State of the UK's Butterflies 2015.
Freyer (1828) Freyer, C.F. (1828) Beiträge zur Geschichte europäischer Schmetterlinge: mit Abbildungen nach der Natur.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Euchloe simplonia: Vol.2, p.87, Plate 75 (Fig. 2)]
Freyer (1852) Freyer, C.F. (1852) Neue Beitrage zur Schmetterlingskunde mit Abbildungen nach der Natur.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Boloria selene: Vol.6, Plate 493 (fig.2)]
Frohawk (1914) Frohawk, F.W. (1914) A Natural History of British Butterflies.
Frohawk (1923) Frohawk, F.W. (1923) Carcharodus alceae in Surrey. The Entomologist.
This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [Carcharodus alceae]
Frohawk (1924) Frohawk, F.W. (1924) The Natural History of British Butterflies.
This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [Gonepteryx rhamni], [Nymphalis antiopa]
Frohawk (1934) Frohawk, F.W. (1934) The Complete Book of British Butterflies.
Frohawk (1938) Frohawk, F.W. (1938) Varieties of British Butterflies.
Fruhstorfer (1909) Fruhstorfer, H. (1909) Neue paläarktische Satyriden. Entomologische Zeitschrift.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Pararge aegeria: Vol.22, p.211], [Pararge aegeria ssp. insula: Vol.22, p.211]
Fruhstorfer (1915) Fruhstorfer, H. (1915) Societas Entomologica.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Maculinea arion ssp. eutyphron: Vol.30, p.67]
Fruhstorfer (1916) Fruhstorfer, H. (1916) Neue Rhopaloceren aus der Sammlung Leonhard. Archiv für Naturgeschichte.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Euphydryas aurinia: Vol.82 (A2), pp.6-7]
Fruhstorfer (1922) Fruhstorfer, H. (1922) Entomologische Rundschau.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Papilio machaon ssp. gorganus: Vol.39, p.13]
Fuchs (1880) Fuchs, A. (1880) Lepidopterologische Mittheilungen aus dem unteren Rheingau. Entomologische Zeitung.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Celastrina argiolus: Vol.41, p.116]
Fuessly (1775) Fuessly, J.K. (1775) Verzeichniss Der Ihm Bekannten Schweizerischen Insekten.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Cupido minimus, p.31]
Furneaux (1894) Furneaux, W. (1894) Butterflies and Moths (British).
This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [Satyrium w-album], [Thymelicus lineola]
Gardiner (1963) Gardiner, B.O.C. (1963) Notes on the Breeding and Biology of Papilio Machaon L. (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London (A).
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Papilio machaon ssp. britannicus: Vol.38, Issue 10-12, pp.206-211]
Geoffroy (1785) Geoffroy, E.L. (1785) Entomologia Parisiensis.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Colias croceus, p.200]
Godart (1821) Godart, J.B. (1821) Histoire naturelle des lépidoptères ou papillons de France.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Pararge aegeria ssp. tircis: Vol.1, p.163, Plate XXVII]
Goodden (1978) Goodden, R. (1978) British Butterflies, a Field Guide.
Goodson (1948) Goodson, A.L. (1948) New varieties of Argynnis cydippe L. and Lycaena phlaeus L.. The Entomologist.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Lycaena phlaeas ssp. hibernica: Vol.81, pp.177-178]
Goodson & Read (1969) Goodson, A.L. and Read. D.K. (1969) Aberrational and Subspecific Forms of British Lepidoptera (unpublished work, British Museum of Natural History) .
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Euphydryas aurinia, p.90], [Maculinea arion, p.155], [Pieris brassicae, p.56]
Goss (1877) Goss, H. (1877) Thais lumina captured in the Brighton market. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Zerynthia rumina, p.137]
Graves (1930a) Graves, P.P. (1930) The British and Irish Maniola jurtina. The Entomologist.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Maniola jurtina ssp. cassiteridum: Vol.63, pp.75-81], [Maniola jurtina ssp. iernes: Vol.63, pp.49-54]
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Maniola jurtina ssp. splendida: Vol.63, pp.49-54]
Graves (1930b) Graves, P.P. (1930) Notes on Collecting in Ireland. Entomologist's Record and Journal of Variation.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Polyommatus icarus: Vol.42, p.99]
Green (1749) Green, J. (1749) Spalding Gentlemen's Society Minute Book.
This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [Lycaena dispar]
Greene (1863) Greene, Rev.J. (1863) The Insect Hunter's Companion.
Grote (1895) Grote, A.R. (1895) Systema Lepidopterorum Hildesiae: juxta opera praeliminaria, quae edirunt Bates, Scudder, Guilielmus Mueller, Comstock, Dyar, Chapman.
This reference is used in the original description of the following families: [Riodinidae, p.2]
This reference is used in the original description of the following subfamilies: [Riodininae, p.2]
Grote (1897) Grote, A.R. (1897) Die Schmetterlingsfauna von Hildesheim. - Mitt. Roemer-Museum, Hildesh.
This reference is used in the original description of the following tribes: [Maniolini: Vol.8, p.40]
Grove & Herbert (1987) Grove, S. and Herbert, G. (1987) Butterflies of the Southern Chalk Downland.
Hübner (1779) Hübner, J. (1779) Sammlung europäischer Schmetterlinge.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Colias croceus ssp. croceus f. helice: Vol.1, p.67, Plate 87 (Figs. 440, 441)]
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Euphydryas aurinia, p.6, Plate 1 (Figs. 4, 5, 6)]
Hübner (1807) Hübner, J. (1807) Sammlung exotischer Schmetterlinge.
This reference is used in the original description of the following genera: [Dryas: Vol.1, pp.43-44]
Hübner (1818) Hübner, J. (1818) Zuträge zur Sammlung exotischer Schmettlinge.
This reference is used in the original description of the following genera: [Strymon, p.22]
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Strymon melinus, p.22]
Hübner (1819) Hübner, J. (1819) Verzeichniss bekannter Schmettlinge.
This reference is used in the original description of the following genera: [Aporia, p.90], [Araschnia, p.37], [Caligo, p.51], [Carcharodus, p.110], [Coenonympha, p.65], [Euchloe, p.94], [Hamearis, p.19], [Iphiclides, p.82], [Issoria, p.31], [Junonia, p.34], [Lampides, p.70], [Pararge, p.59], [Polygonia, p.36], [Pyrgus, p.109], [Pyronia, p.58], [Thymelicus, p.113]
This reference is used in the original description of the following subgenera: [Everes, p.69], [Issoria, p.31]
Hübner (1821) Hübner, J. (1821) Sammlung exotischer Schmetterlinge.
This reference is used in the original description of the following genera: [Hypanartia: Vol.2, Plate 26]
Hübner (1823) Hübner, J. (1823) Sammlung europäischer Schmetterlinge.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Leptidea sinapis, Plate Fig. 797-798]
Harmer (1999) Harmer, A.S. (1999) Variation in British Butterflies.
Harris (1766) Harris, M. (1766) The Aurelian. Edition 1.
This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [Aglais urticae], [Aphantopus hyperantus], [Aporia crataegi], [Argynnis adippe], [Argynnis aglaja], [Argynnis paphia], [Boloria euphrosyne], [Boloria selene], [Callophrys rubi], [Coenonympha pamphilus], [Erynnis tages], [Euphydryas aurinia], [Hamearis lucina], [Hipparchia semele], [Lasiommata megera], [Leptidea sinapis], [Lycaena phlaeas], [Melanargia galathea], [Melitaea athalia], [Melitaea cinxia], [Nymphalis antiopa], [Ochlodes sylvanus], [Pararge aegeria], [Pyrgus malvae], [Pyronia tithonus], [Thymelicus sylvestris]
Harris (1775a) Harris, M. (1775) The Aurelian. Edition 2.
This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [Argynnis paphia], [Callophrys rubi], [Hesperia comma], [Polyommatus icarus], [Pyronia tithonus]
Harris (1775b) Harris, M. (1775) The English Lepidoptera: or, The Aurelian's Pocket Companion.
This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [Aricia agestis], [Callophrys rubi], [Celastrina argiolus], [Colias hyale], [Hipparchia semele], [Issoria lathonia], [Plebejus argus], [Polyommatus bellargus], [Polyommatus coridon], [Satyrium w-album], [Vanessa atalanta]
Harris (1809) Miss Harris (1809) Coloured Drawings of British Butterflies ... From the Collection of Mr. W.E. Leach.
Harrison (1937) Harrison, J.W.H. (1937) Rhapolocera on the Island of Scalpay, with an account of the occurrence of Nymphalis io on Raasay. The Entomologist.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Boloria selene: Vol.70, pp.1-4]
Harrison (1946a) Harrison, J.W.H. (1946) The Lepidoptera of the Hebridian Isles of Coll, Tiree and Gunna, with some remarks on the Biogeography of the Islands. Entomologist's Record and Journal of Variation.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Hipparchia semele ssp. atlantica: Vol.58, p.58]
Harrison (1946b) Harrison, J.W.H. (1946) The Geographical Distribution of Certain Hebridean Insects and Deductions to be made from it. Entomologist's Record and Journal of Variation.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Euphydryas aurinia: Vol.58, pp.18-21]
Harrison (1948) Harrison, J.W.H. (1948) A new race of Coenonympha pamphilus L. from the Hebrides. Entomologist's Record and Journal of Variation.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Coenonympha pamphilus ssp. rhoumensis: Vol.60, p.111]
Harrison (1949) Harrison, J.W.H. (1949) Rhopalocera in the Scottish Western Isles in 1948, with an account of two new forms of Pararge aegeria L. (Lep. Satyridae). Entomologist's Monthly Magazine.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Pararge aegeria ssp. oblita: Vol.85, pp.25-28]
Harrison (1951) Harrison, J.W.H (1951) Observations on the ranges, habitats and variation of the Rhopalocera of the Outer Hebrides. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Coenonympha pamphilus ssp. rhoumensis: Vol.86, pp.65-70]
Harrison (1952) Harrison, J.W.H. and Morton, J.K. (1952) Lepidoptera in the Isles of Raasay, Rhum, Lewis and Harris in 1951. The Entomologist.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Coenonympha pamphilus ssp. rhoumensis: Vol.85, pp.6-13]
Haworth (1802) Haworth, A. (1802) Prodromus Lepidopterorum Britannicorum. A Concise Catalogue of British Lepidopterous Insects, with the Times and Places of Appearance in the Winged State.
Haworth (1803) Haworth, A.H. (1803) Lepidoptera Britannica.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Coenonympha tullia ssp. polydama, p.16], [Lycaena dispar, p.40]
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Parnassius apollo, p.xxix]
This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [Argynnis aglaja], [Argynnis paphia], [Aricia agestis], [Aricia artaxerxes], [Boloria selene], [Carterocephalus palaemon], [Coenonympha tullia], [Colias hyale], [Cyaniris semiargus], [Erebia epiphron], [Euphydryas aurinia], [Hesperia comma], [Hipparchia semele], [Lycaena phlaeas], [Melitaea cinxia], [Nymphalis antiopa], [Pieris brassicae], [Pieris rapae], [Pontia daplidice], [Pyronia tithonus]
Haworth (1812) Haworth, A.H. (1812) A brief account of some rare insects announced at various times to the Society, as new to Britain. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Erebia epiphron ssp. mnemon: Vol.1, pp.332-340]
Heath, Pollard & Thomas (1984) Heath, J., Pollard, E. and Thomas, J.A. (1984) Atlas of Butterflies in Britain and Ireland.
Hemming (1933) Hemming, F. (1933) Holarctic Butterflies: Miscellaneous Notes on Nomenclature. The Entomologist.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subgenera: [Lysandra: Vol.66, p.277]
Herbst (1794) Jablonsky, C.G and Herbst, W. (1794) Natursystem aller bekannten in- und ausländischen Insekten.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Vanessa indica: Vol.7, Plate 180 (Figs 1, 2)]
Herrich-Schäffer (1864) Herrich-Schäffer, G.A.W. (1864) Prodromus Systematis Lepidopterorum. Versuch einer systematischen Anordnung der Schmetterlinge.
This reference is used in the original description of the following tribes: [Elymniini, p.15]
Heslop (1959) Hislop, I.R.P. (1959) A new label list of British macrolepidoptera. Entomologist's Gazette.
This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [Anthocharis cardamines], [Aphantopus hyperantus], [Aricia artaxerxes], [Boloria euphrosyne], [Colias alfacariensis], [Colias croceus], [Hamearis lucina], [Papilio machaon], [Thymelicus sylvestris], [Vanessa virginiensis]
Heslop, Hyde & Stockley (1964) Heslop, I.R., Hyde, G.E. and Stockley, R.E. (1964) Notes and Views of the Purple Emperor.
Hewitson (1863) Hewitson, W. (1863) Illustrations of diurnal Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Rapala manea, p.23, Plate 10 (Figs. 40, 41)]
Hickin (1992) Hickin, N. (1992) The Butterflies of Ireland.
Higgins (1975) Higgins, L.G. (1975) The Classification of European Butterflies.
Higgins & Riley (1970) Higgins, L.G. and Riley, N.D. (1970) A Field Guide to the Butterflies of Britain and Europe.
This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [Araschnia levana], [Argynnis pandora], [Boloria dia], [Carcharodus alceae], [Gonepteryx cleopatra]
Holland (1898) Holland, W.J. (1898) The butterfly book.
This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [Vanessa virginiensis]
Holmes (1873) Holmes, G.B. (1873) Doritos Apollo at Epping. The Entomologist.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Parnassius apollo, p.39]
Howarth (1971a) Howarth, T.G. (1971) Descriptions of a new British subspecies of Pararge aegeria (L.) (Lep., Satyridae) and an aberration of Cupido minimus (Fuessly) (Lep., Lycaenidae). Entomologist's Gazette.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Pararge aegeria ssp. insula: Vol.22, pp.117-118]
Howarth (1971b) Howarth, T.G. (1971) The status of Irish Hipparchia semele (L.) (Lep., Satyridae) with descriptions of a new subspecies and aberrations. Entomologist's Gazette.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Hipparchia semele ssp. hibernica: Vol.22, pp.123-129]
Howarth (1973) Howarth, T.G. (1973) South's British Butterflies.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Pararge aegeria ssp. oblita, pp.135-137], [Pyrgus armoricanus, p.34]
This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [Aricia artaxerxes]
Huggins (1956a) Huggins, H.C. (1956) The Burren subspecies of Erynnis tages Linn.. The Entomologist.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Erynnis tages ssp. baynesi: Vol.89, pp.241-242]
Huggins (1956b) Huggins, H.C. (1956) The Irish race of Gonepteryx rhamni (Lep. Pieridae). The Entomologist.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Gonepteryx rhamni ssp. gravesi: Vol.89, pp.65-66]
Huggins (1959) Huggins, H.C. (1959) A Naturalist in the Kingdom of Kerry. Proceedings of the South London Entomological and Natural History Society.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Aphantopus hyperantus, pp.176-183], [Euphydryas aurinia, pp.176-183]
Hulme (1903) Hulme, F.E. (1903) Butterflies and Moths of the Country Side.
Humphreys (1858) Humphreys, H.N. (1858) Butterflies in Their Floral Homes; with Butterfly Fables, Indited by a Dreamer in the Woods.
Humphreys (1858) Humphreys, H.N. (1858) The Butterfly Vivarium, or Insect Home.
Humphreys (1859) Humphreys, H.N. (1859) The Genera and Species of British Butterflies.
Jermyn (1824) Jermyn, L. (1824) The Butterfly Collector's Vade Mecum: or a Synoptical Table of English Butterflies.
This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [Boloria euphrosyne], [Boloria selene], [Colias hyale], [Erynnis tages], [Gonepteryx rhamni], [Lycaena hippothoe], [Lycaena virgaureae], [Nymphalis antiopa], [Pyrgus malvae]
Johnson (1868) Johnson, T. (1868) Illustrations of British Butterflies, and their Larvae. With the Plants on which they feed.
Johnson (1878) Johnson, T. (1878) Illustrations of the Larvae and Pupae of British Lepidoptera.
Johnson (1900) Johnson, T. (1900) Illustrations of British Lepidoptera.
Johnson (1906) Johnson, T. (1906) A Life-History of the British Butterflies.
Johnson (1955) Johnson, E.E. (1955) Differences between adjacent colonies of Euphydryas aurinia Rott.. Entomologist's Record and Journal of Variation.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Euphydryas aurinia: Vol.67, p.132]
Jones (1905a) Jones, A.H. (1905) Lycaena Argus, Kirby, var. Hypochiona, Ramb., on the North Downs. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Plebejus argus ssp. cretaceus: Vol.41, p.254]
Jones (1905b) Jones, A.H. (1905) The Proceedings of the Entomological Society of London.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Plebejus argus ssp. cretaceus, p.xlvi]
Kane (1885) Kane, W.F. de Vismes (1885) European Butterflies.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Polyommatus icarus ssp. mariscolore, p.42]
Kane (1893) Kane, W.F. de Vismes (1893) A catalogue of the Lepidoptera of Ireland. The Entomologist.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Polyommatus icarus ssp. mariscolore: Vol.26, pp.240-244]
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Euphydryas aurinia: Vol.26, pp.157-159]
Kappel & Kirby (1895) Kappel, A.W. and Kirby, W.E. (1895) British and European Butterflies and Moths.
Kirby (1862) Kirby, W.F. (1862) A Manual of European Butterflies.
Kirby (1882) Kirby, W.F. (1882) European Butterflies and Moths.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Parnassius apollo, p.4]
Kirby (1896) Kirby, W.F. (1896) A Hand-Book to the Order Lepidoptera.
This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [Cupido argiades], [Lampides boeticus], [Lasiommata megera], [Pieris brassicae], [Pieris rapae], [Thymelicus lineola]
Kirby (1906) Kirby, W.E. (1906) Butterflies and Moths of the United Kingdom.
This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [Danaus plexippus]
Kirby (1907) Kirby, W.F. (1907) Butterflies and Moths of Europe.
Kirby (1909) Kirby, W.E. (1909) Butterflies and Moths of the United Kingdom.
Kirby & Spence (1815) Kirby, W. and Spence, W. (1815) An Introduction to Entomology (7th ed. 1857).
Kloet (1972) Kloet, G.S. and Hincks, W.D. (1972) A check list of British insects: Lepidoptera. Handbooks for the identification of British insects. Edition 2.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Euphydryas aurinia: Vol.11(2), p.153]
Kluk (1780) Kluk, K. (1780) Zwierzat domowych i dzikich osobliwie kraiowych historyi naturalney poczatki i gospodarstwo.
This reference is used in the original description of the following genera: [Danaus: Vol.4, p.83], [Nymphalis: Vol.4, p.86], [Plebejus: Vol.4, p.89]
Knaggs (1869) Knaggs, H.G. (1869) The Lepidopterist's Guide.
Knoch (1782) Knoch, A.W. (1782) Beiträge zur Insektengeschichte.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Satyrium w-album: Vol.2, p.85]
Knoch (1783) Knoch, A.W. (1783) Beiträge zur Insektengeschichte.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Erebia epiphron: Vol.3, p.131]
Kudrna (1977) Kudrna, O. (1977) A Revision of the Genus Hipparchia Fabricius.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subgenera: [Parahipparchia, p.12]
Lang (1884) Lang, H.C. (1884) Rhopalocera Europae Descripta Et Delineata (Vol.1 - text).
Lang (1884) Lang, H.C. (1884) Rhopalocera Europae Descripta Et Delineata (Vol.2 - plates).
Lanktree (1960) Lanktree, P.A.D. (1960) Some Old Records of Lepidoptera, and The Last Apollo seen in England - an allegation referring to 95 years ago. Entomologist's Record and Journal of Variation.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Parnassius apollo, pp.120-125]
Latreille (1802) Latreille, P.A. (1802) Histoire naturelle, générale et particulière, des Crustacés et des Insectes.
This reference is used in the original description of the following families: [Papilionidae: Vol.3, p.387]
This reference is used in the original description of the following subfamilies: [Papilioninae: Vol.3, p.387]
This reference is used in the original description of the following tribes: [Papilionini: Vol.3, p.387]
Latreille (1804) Latreille, P.A. (1804) Nouveau Dictionnaire d'Histoire Naturelle.
This reference is used in the original description of the following genera: [Parnassius: Vol.24, p.185, 199], [Polyommatus: Vol.24, p.185, 200]
This reference is used in the original description of the following subgenera: [Polyommatus: Vol.24, p.185, 200]
Latreille (1809) Latreille, P.A. (1809) Genera crustaceorum et insectorum secundum ordinem naturalem in familias disposita, iconibus exemplisque plurimis explicata.
This reference is used in the original description of the following families: [Hesperiidae: Vol.4, p.187, 207]
This reference is used in the original description of the following subfamilies: [Hesperiinae: Vol.4, p.187, 207]
Lattin (1952) de Lattin, G. (1952) Two new subspecies of Hipparchia semele. Entomologist's Record and Journal of Variation.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Hipparchia semele ssp. clarensis: Vol.64, pp.335-336]
Le Chamberlain (1908) Le Chamberlain, C. (1908) Lycaena arion in the Cotswolds. The Entomologist.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Maculinea arion: Vol.41, p.202]
Leach (1815) Leach (1815) In Brewster: The Edinburgh Encyclopaedia.
This reference is used in the original description of the following families: [Lycaenidae: Vol.9, p.129]
This reference is used in the original description of the following subfamilies: [Lycaeninae: Vol.9, p.129]
This reference is used in the original description of the following tribes: [Lycaenini: Vol.9, p.129]
This reference is used in the original description of the following genera: [Gonepteryx: Vol.9, p.127]
Lederer (1852) Lederer, J. (1852) Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Vereins in Wien.
This reference is used in the original description of the following genera: [Carterocephalus: Vol.2, p.26, 49]
Lesse (1951) de Lesse, H. (1951) Division génériques et subgénériques des anciens genres Satyrus et Eumenis (sensu lato). Revue Francaise de Lépidoptèrologie.
This reference is used in the original description of the following genera: [Arethusana: Vol.13 (Nos. 3,4), p.40]
Lewin (1795) Lewin, W. (1795) The Papilios of Great Britain.
This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [Aglais urticae], [Apatura iris], [Aphantopus hyperantus], [Argynnis adippe], [Argynnis aglaja], [Argynnis paphia], [Aricia agestis], [Aricia artaxerxes], [Boloria selene], [Callophrys rubi], [Celastrina argiolus], [Coenonympha pamphilus], [Coenonympha tullia], [Colias hyale], [Cupido minimus], [Cyaniris semiargus], [Euphydryas aurinia], [Hesperia comma], [Hipparchia semele], [Iphiclides podalirius], [Issoria lathonia], [Lasiommata megera], [Lycaena dispar], [Lycaena phlaeas], [Lycaena virgaureae], [Maculinea arion], [Maniola jurtina], [Melanargia galathea], [Nymphalis polychloros], [Pieris napi], [Pontia daplidice], [Pyrgus malvae], [Pyronia tithonus], [Vanessa cardui]
Linnaeus (1758) Linnaeus, C. (1758) Systema Naturae. Edition 10.
This reference is used in the original description of the following genera: [Papilio, p.458]
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Aglais io: Vol.1, p.472], [Aglais urticae: Vol.1, p.477], [Anthocharis cardamines: Vol.1, p.468], [Apatura iris: Vol.1, p.476], [Aphantopus hyperantus: Vol.1, p.471], [Aporia crataegi: Vol.1, p.467], [Araschnia levana: Vol.1, p.480], [Araschnia levana ssp. levana f. prorsa: Vol.1, p.480], [Argynnis aglaja: Vol.1, p.481], [Argynnis niobe: Vol.1, p.481], [Argynnis paphia: Vol.1, p.481], [Boloria euphrosyne: Vol.1, p.481], [Callophrys rubi: Vol.1, p.483], [Celastrina argiolus: Vol.1, p.483], [Coenonympha pamphilus: Vol.1, p.472], [Colias hyale: Vol.1, p.469], [Colobura dirce: Vol.1, p.477], [Danaus plexippus: Vol.1, p.471], [Erebia ligea: Vol.1, p.473], [Erynnis tages: Vol.1, p.485], [Favonius quercus: Vol.1, p.482], [Gonepteryx rhamni: Vol.1, p.470], [Hamearis lucina: Vol.1, p.480], [Hesperia comma: Vol.1, p.484], [Hipparchia semele: Vol.1, p.474], [Iphiclides podalirius: Vol.1, p.463], [Issoria lathonia: Vol.1, p.481], [Junonia oenone: Vol.1, p.473], [Lasiommata maera: Vol.1, p.473], [Leptidea sinapis: Vol.1, p.468], [Lycaena virgaureae: Vol.1, p.484], [Maculinea arion: Vol.1, p.483], [Maniola jurtina: Vol.1, p.475], [Melanargia galathea: Vol.1, p.474], [Melitaea cinxia: Vol.1, p.480], [Nymphalis antiopa: Vol.1, p.476], [Nymphalis polychloros: Vol.1, p.477], [Opsiphanes cassiae, p.471], [Papilio glaucus: Vol.1, p.460], [Papilio machaon: Vol.1, p.462], [Pararge aegeria: Vol.1, p.473], [Parnassius apollo: Vol.1, p.465], [Pieris brassicae: Vol.1, p.467], [Pieris napi: Vol.1, p.468], [Pieris rapae: Vol.1, p.468], [Plebejus argus: Vol.1, p.483], [Polygonia c-album: Vol.1, p.477], [Pontia daplidice: Vol.1, p.468], [Pyrgus malvae: Vol.1, p.485], [Satyrium pruni: Vol.1, p.482], [Thecla betulae: Vol.1, p.482], [Vanessa atalanta: Vol.1, p.478], [Vanessa cardui: Vol.1, p.475], [Zerynthia rumina: Vol.1, p.480]
Linnaeus (1761) Linnaeus, C. (1761) Fauna Suecica Sistens Animalia Sueciae Regni. Edition 2.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Colias palaeno, p.272], [Lycaena hippothoe, p.274], [Lycaena phlaeas, p.285]
Linnaeus (1764) Linnaeus, C. (1764) Museum S:ae R:ae M:tis Ludovicae Ulricae Reginae Svecorum, Gothorum, Vandalorumque.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Chazara briseis, p.276], [Limenitis camilla, p.304]
Linnaeus (1767) Linnaeus, C. (1767) Systema Naturae. Edition 12.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Boloria dia: Vol.1, p.785], [Gonepteryx cleopatra: Vol.1, p.765], [Lampides boeticus: Vol.1, p.789], [Lasiommata megera: Vol.1, p.771], [Leptotes pirithous: Vol.1, p.790]
Linnaeus (1771) Linnaeus, C. (1771) Mantissa plantarum altera generum editionis.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Pyronia tithonus, p.537]
Lister (1682) Lister, M. (1682) Johannes Goedartius, Of Insects. Done Into English and Methodized, With the Addition of Notes.
Lucas (1893) Lucas, W.J. (1893) The Book of British Butterflies.
Müller (1764) Müller, O.F. (1764) Fauna insectorum Fridrichsdalina: sive Methodica descriptio insectorum agri fridrichsdalensis .
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Coenonympha tullia, p.36]
Müller & Kautz (1939) Müller, L. and Kautz, H. (1939) Pieris bryoniae O. und Pieris napi L.. Abhandlungen des Österreichischen Entomologen-Vereines.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Pieris napi ssp. britannica: Vol.1, p.76]
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Pieris napi: Vol.1, p.82], [Pieris napi ssp. thomsoni: Vol.1, p.82]
Mackworth-Praed (1945) Mackworth-Praed, C.W. (1945) Three Seasons in the Western Highlands. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Carterocephalus palaemon: Vol.81, p.114]
Martin (1785) Martin, M. (1785) The Aurelian's Vade Mecum, containing an English alphabetical, and Linnæan systematical catalogue of Plants, affording Nourishment to Butterflies, Hawk-moths, and Moths, in the State of Caterpillar.
Massey (1895) Massey, H. (1895) Lycaena aegon var. corsica on the Westmoreland Mosses. Entomologist's Record and Journal of Variation.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Plebejus argus ssp. masseyi: Vol.7, pp.127-129]
May (2003) May, P.R. (2003) Larval Foodplants of the Butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland.
Mead-Briggs (2010) Mead-Briggs, M. and Eeles, P. (2010) Argynnis cybele (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) - a 'New' Record for the British Isles. British Journal of Entomology and Natural History.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Argynnis cybele: Vol.23, pp.167-169, Plate 9 (Figs. 1 and 2)]
Meigen (1828) Meigen, J.W. (1828) Systematische Beschreibung der Europäischen Schmetterlinge: mit Abbildungen auf Steintafeln.
This reference is used in the original description of the following genera: [Melanargia: Vol.1, p.97]
Merrett (1667) Merrett, C. (1667) Pinax Rerum Naturalium Britannicarum.
Merrin (1860) Merrin, J. (1860) The Lepidopterist's Calendar (2nd ed. 1875).
Meyrick (1887) Metric, E. (1887) Parnassus delius, Esp., captured in North Wales. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Parnassius phoebus: Vol.24, p.130]
Meyrick (1895) Meyrick, E. (1895) A Handbook of British Lepidoptera.
Moffet (1634) Moffet, T. (1634) Insectorum Sive Minimorum Animalium Theatrum.
Moore (1879) Moore, F. (1879) Proceedings of the general meetings for scientific business of the Zoological Society of London.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Rapala manea ssp. schistacea, p.140]
Moore (1881) Moore, F. (1881) The Lepidoptera of Ceylon.
This reference is used in the original description of the following genera: [Rapala: Vol.1(3), p.105]
Moore (1893) Moore, F. (1893) Lepidoptera indica.
This reference is used in the original description of the following genera: [Chazara: Vol.2, p.21]
Moore (1900) Moore, F. (1900) Lepidoptera indica.
This reference is used in the original description of the following genera: [Boloria: Vol.4, pp.243-244]
Morley & Chalmers-Hunt (1959) Morley, A.M. and Chalmers-Hunt, J.M. (1959) Some Observations on the Crimson Ringed Butterfly (Parnassus apollo L.) in Britain. Entomologist's Record and Journal of Variation.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Parnassius apollo: Vol.71, pp.273-276]
Morris (1853) Morris, Rev.F.O. (1853) A History of British Butterflies.
This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [Anthocharis cardamines], [Apatura iris], [Aphantopus hyperantus], [Aricia agestis], [Aricia artaxerxes], [Carterocephalus palaemon], [Celastrina argiolus], [Coenonympha pamphilus], [Coenonympha tullia], [Cupido minimus], [Erebia ligea], [Hamearis lucina], [Hipparchia semele], [Lasiommata megera], [Lycaena phlaeas], [Maniola jurtina], [Pararge aegeria], [Polyommatus bellargus], [Pontia daplidice], [Satyrium w-album], [Vanessa virginiensis]
Mosley (1878) Mosley, S. (1878) Illustrations of Varieties of British Lepidoptera.
Murray (1897) Murray, H. (1897) Plebeius aegon var. corsica in Westmoreland. Entomologist's Record and Journal of Variation.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Plebejus argus ssp. masseyi: Vol.9, p.294]
Nash (2012) Nash, D., Boyd, T. and Hardiman, D. (2012) Ireland's Butterflies: A Review.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Argynnis aglaja, p.182], [Coenonympha tullia ssp. scotica, p.212], [Polyommatus icarus ssp. mariscolore, p.157]
New (1991) New, T.R. (1991) Butterfly Conservation.
Newman (1860) Newman, E. (1860) A natural history of all the British butterflies.
This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [Lampides boeticus], [Vanessa virginiensis]
Newman (1871) Newman, E. (1871) An Illustrated Natural History of British Butterflies.
This reference is used in the original description of the following tribes: [Melitaeini, p.39]
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Anthocharis cardamines ssp. hibernica, pp.156-158], [Parnassius apollo, p.176]
This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [Aricia artaxerxes], [Erebia aethiops], [Lampides boeticus]
Newman (1948) Newman, L.H. (1948) Butterfly Haunts.
Newman (1952) Newman, L.H. (1952) Transformations of Butterflies and Moths.
Newman (1953) Newman, L.H. (1953) Butterfly Farmer.
Newman (1968) Newman, L.H. (1968) The Complete British Butterflies in Colour.
Newman & Leeds (1913) Newman, L.W. and Leeds, H.A. (1913) Text Book of British Butterflies and Moths.
This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [Argynnis niobe], [Celastrina argiolus], [Colias croceus], [Cupido argiades], [Danaus plexippus], [Hipparchia semele], [Lycaena virgaureae], [Nymphalis antiopa], [Plebejus argus], [Polyommatus bellargus], [Pyronia tithonus], [Vanessa virginiensis]
Oberthür (1910) Oberthür, C. (1910) Etudes de Lépidoptérologie comparée.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Pyrgus armoricanus: Vol.4, p.411, Plate LVII (Figs. 509-520)]
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Polyommatus icarus: Vol.4, p.238]
Oberthür (1923) Oberthür, C. (1923) Etudes de Lépidoptérologie comparée.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Lycaena dispar ssp. batavus: Vol.21(2), p.73, Plate 570]
Ochsenheimer (1808) Ochsenheimer, F. (1808) Die Schmetterlinge von Europa.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Thymelicus lineola: Vol.1, p.230]
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Pontia daplidice: Vol.1, p.159]
Ochsenheimer (1816) Ochsenheimer, F. (1816) Die Schmetterlinge von Europa.
This reference is used in the original description of the following genera: [Zerynthia: Vol.4, p.29]
This reference is used in the original description of the following subgenera: [Zerynthia: Vol.4, p.29]
Pallas (1771) Pallas, P.S. (1771) Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des russischen Reichs.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Carterocephalus palaemon: Vol.1, p.471], [Cupido argiades: Vol.1, p.472], [Heteropterus morpheus: Vol.1, p.471]
Petiver (1695-1703) Petiver, J. (1695-1703) Musei Petiveriani centuria prima-decima, rariora naturae continens.
This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [Aglais io], [Aglais urticae], [Anthocharis cardamines], [Aphantopus hyperantus], [Aporia crataegi], [Argynnis adippe], [Argynnis paphia], [Boloria euphrosyne], [Coenonympha pamphilus], [Gonepteryx rhamni], [Hamearis lucina], [Hipparchia semele], [Lasiommata megera], [Lycaena phlaeas], [Maniola jurtina], [Melanargia galathea], [Melitaea athalia], [Nymphalis polychloros], [Papilio machaon], [Pieris napi], [Polyommatus icarus], [Pontia daplidice], [Pyrgus malvae], [Pyronia tithonus], [Vanessa atalanta], [Vanessa cardui]
Petiver (1702-1706) Petiver, J. (1702-1706) Gazophylacii naturae et artis decas prima.
This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [Apatura iris], [Aricia agestis], [Callophrys rubi], [Colias croceus], [Erynnis tages], [Favonius quercus], [Hipparchia semele], [Issoria lathonia], [Limenitis camilla], [Melitaea cinxia], [Ochlodes sylvanus], [Pararge aegeria], [Parnassius apollo], [Pieris brassicae], [Pieris rapae], [Polyommatus coridon], [Polyommatus icarus], [Pontia daplidice], [Pyrgus malvae], [Satyrium w-album], [Thecla betulae], [Thymelicus sylvestris], [Vanessa virginiensis]
Petiver (1717) Petiver, J. (1717) Papilionum Britanniae Icones.
This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [Aphantopus hyperantus], [Argynnis paphia], [Boloria euphrosyne], [Callophrys rubi], [Celastrina argiolus], [Coenonympha pamphilus], [Colias croceus], [Erynnis tages], [Euphydryas aurinia], [Favonius quercus], [Junonia villida], [Lasiommata megera], [Leptidea sinapis], [Limenitis camilla], [Lycaena phlaeas], [Maniola jurtina], [Melanargia galathea], [Melitaea athalia], [Melitaea cinxia], [Ochlodes sylvanus], [Pieris brassicae], [Pieris napi], [Pieris rapae], [Plebejus argus], [Polygonia c-album], [Polyommatus bellargus], [Polyommatus icarus], [Pontia daplidice], [Pyronia tithonus]
Poda (1761) Poda von Neuhaus, N. (1761) Insecta musei Graecensis.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Glaucopsyche alexis, p.77], [Lycaena tityrus, p.77], [Polyommatus coridon, p.77], [Thymelicus sylvestris, p.79]
Pollard & Yates (1993) Pollard, E. and Yates, T.J. (1993) Monitoring Butterflies for Ecology and Conservation.
Porter (1992) Porter, K. (1992) Butterflies and communities. The Ecology of Butterflies in Britain.
Porter (1997) Porter, J. (1997) The Colour Identification Guide to Caterpillars of the British Isles.
Prunner (1798) de Prunner, L. (1798) Lepidoptera Pedemontana.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Erebia alberganus, p.71]
Rafinesque (1815) Rafinesque, C.S. (1815) Analyse de la nature ou Tableau de l'univers et des corps organisés.
This reference is used in the original description of the following families: [Nymphalidae, p.127]
This reference is used in the original description of the following subfamilies: [Nymphalinae, p.127]
This reference is used in the original description of the following tribes: [Nymphalini, p.127]
Ravenscroft (1996) Ravenscroft, N. (1996) The Chequered Skipper Butterfly.
Ray (1710) Ray, J. (1710) Historia Insectorum.
This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [Anthocharis cardamines], [Argynnis paphia], [Boloria selene], [Gonepteryx rhamni], [Issoria lathonia], [Leptidea sinapis], [Melanargia galathea], [Pieris rapae], [Thecla betulae]
Reichenbach (1817) Reichenbach, R.L. (1817) Jenaische Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung.
This reference is used in the original description of the following genera: [Aricia: Vol.1, p.280]
Rennie (1832) Rennie, J. (1832) A conspectus of the butterflies and moths found in Britain, with their English and systematic names, times of appearances, sizes, colours, their caterpillars, and various localities.
This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [Apatura iris], [Aporia crataegi], [Argynnis niobe], [Boloria dia], [Boloria euphrosyne], [Boloria selene], [Coenonympha pamphilus], [Colias croceus], [Colias hyale], [Erebia aethiops], [Euphydryas aurinia], [Gonepteryx rhamni], [Hamearis lucina], [Issoria lathonia], [Junonia villida], [Limenitis camilla], [Lycaena dispar], [Lycaena hippothoe], [Lycaena virgaureae], [Maculinea arion], [Melitaea athalia], [Nymphalis polychloros], [Ochlodes sylvanus], [Papilio machaon], [Parnassius apollo], [Pieris brassicae], [Pieris napi], [Pieris rapae], [Plebejus argus], [Polyommatus icarus], [Pontia daplidice], [Satyrium pruni], [Thymelicus sylvestris]
Reuss (1920) Reuss, T. (1920) Die Androconien von Yramea cytheris Drury und die nächststehenden analogen Schuppenbildungen bei Dione Hbn. und Brenthis Hbn. (Lep.). Entomologische Mitteilungen.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subgenera: [Clossiana: Vol.9, p.192], [Fabriciana: Vol.9, p.192]
Reuss (1926) Reuss, T. (1926) Systematischer Überblick der Dryadinae T. Rss. mit einigen Neubeschreibungen (Lep. Rhopal). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subgenera: [Mesoacidalia: Vol.1, p.69]
Reuter (1896) Reuter, E. (1896) Über die Palpen der Rhopalocera. Ein Beitrag zur Erkenntnis der verwandtschaftlichen Beziehungen unter den Tagfaltern.
This reference is used in the original description of the following tribes: [Junoniini, p.457]
Ribbe (1905) Ribbe, C. (1905) Einige neue Formen von Schmetterlingen aus Andalusien. Societas entomologica.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Colias alfacariensis: Vol.20(18), pp.137-138]
Riley (2007) Riley, A.M. (2007) British and Irish Butterflies: The Complete Identification, Field and Site Guide to the Species, Subspecies and Forms.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Argynnis aglaja, p.236], [Coenonympha tullia, pp.304-311], [Lycaena phlaeas ssp. hibernica, p.134], [Papilio machaon ssp. britannicus, p.72], [Polyommatus icarus ssp. mariscolore, p.168]
Robson (1880) Robson, J.E. (1880) British Butterflies, 19. The Greasy Fritillary. The Young Naturalist.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Euphydryas aurinia: Vol.2, pp.36-38]
Robson (1881) Robson, J.E. (1881) The Young Naturalist.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Polygonia c-album ssp. c-album f. hutchinsoni: Vol.2, p.110]
Robson & Gardner (1880) Robson, J.E. & Gardner, J. (1880) A List of British Lepidoptera and their Named Varieties.
Rottemburg (1775) von Rottemburg, S.A. (1775) Der Naturforscher.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Cyaniris semiargus: Vol.6, p.20], [Euphydryas aurinia: Vol.6, p.5], [Lycaena alciphron: Vol.6, p.11], [Melitaea athalia: Vol.6, p.5], [Polyommatus bellargus: Vol.6, p.25], [Polyommatus icarus: Vol.6, p.21], [Thymelicus acteon: Vol.6, p.30]
Rowland-Brown (1912) Rowland-Brown, H. (1912) Butterflies and Moths at Home and Abroad.
Russwurm (1978) Russwurm, A.D.A. (1978) Aberrations of British Butterflies.
Sabine (1889) Sabine, E. (1889) Doritos Apollo at Dover. The Entomologist.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Parnassius apollo: Vol.22, p.278]
Salmon (2000) Salmon, M. (2000) The Aurelian Legacy: British Butterflies and Their Collectors.
Samouelle (1819) Samouelle, G. (1819) The Entomologist's Useful Compendium.
This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [Aricia agestis], [Aricia artaxerxes], [Boloria selene], [Callophrys rubi], [Carterocephalus palaemon], [Cupido minimus], [Lasiommata megera], [Melanargia galathea], [Ochlodes sylvanus], [Pieris brassicae], [Pieris rapae], [Pyrgus malvae], [Pyronia tithonus]
Samouelle (1841) Samouelle, G. (1841) The Entomological Cabinet; Being a Natural History of British Insects. Edition 2.
Schatz (1887) Schatz, E. (1887) Die Familien und Gattungen der Tagfalter systematisch und analytisch bearbeitet.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subfamilies: [Dismorphiinae]
Schrank (1801) Schrank, F. (1801) Fauna boica. Durchgedachte Geschichte der in Baiern einheimschen und zahmen Thiere.
This reference is used in the original description of the following genera: [Cupido, p.206], [Erynnis, p.152], [Maniola, p.152], [Pieris, p.152]
This reference is used in the original description of the following subgenera: [Cupido, p.206]
Scopoli (1763) Scopoli, G.A. (1763) Entomologia Carniolica: exhibens insecta Carnioliae indigena et distributa in ordines, genera, species, varietates.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Hipparchia fagi, p.152, Plate Fig.428]
Scorer (1913) Scorer, A.G. (1913) The Entomologist's Log-Book.
Scott (1955) Scott, P. (1955) Parnassius Apollo L. at Folkestone. Entomologist's Record and Journal of Variation.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Parnassius apollo: Vol.67, p.273]
Scudder (1872) Scudder, S.H. (1872) Annual Report of the Trustees of the Peabody Academy of Science.
This reference is used in the original description of the following genera: [Euphydryas: Vol.4, p.48], [Glaucopsyche: Vol.4, p.54], [Ochlodes: Vol.4, p.78]
This reference is used in the original description of the following subgenera: [Speyeria: Vol.4, p.44]
Scudder (1876) Scudder, S.H. (1876) Bulletin of the Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences.
This reference is used in the original description of the following genera: [Leptotes: Vol.3, p.124], [Satyrium: Vol.3, p.106]
Seitz (1907) Seitz, A. (1907) Gattung Papilio, Schwalbenschwanze. Die Großschmetterlinge der Erde.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Papilio machaon ssp. britannicus: Vol.1, p.12, Plate 6]
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Papilio machaon ssp. gorganus, Plate 6]
Sepp (1840) Sepp, J. (1840) Natuurlijke Historie van Surinaamsche Vlinders.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Saliana longirostris: Vol.1, p.7, Plate 27]
Settele (2008) Settele, J. et al. (2008) Climatic Risk Atlas of European Butterflies.
Shaffer (2008) Shaffer, M. (2008) Channel Islands Lepidoptera.
Shield (1856) Shield, R. (1856) Practical hints respecting moths and butterflies, with notices of their localities.
Sibatani & Ito (1942) Sibatani and Ito (1942) Tenthredo.
This reference is used in the original description of the following genera: [Favonius: Vol.3(4), p.327]
South (1887) South, R. (1887) Notes on the Genus Lycaena. The Entomologist.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Polyommatus icarus ssp. mariscolore: Vol.20, pp.73-85, Plate 2]
South (1906) South, R. (1906) The Butterflies Of The British Isles.
This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [Aricia artaxerxes], [Cupido argiades], [Danaus plexippus], [Thymelicus lineola]
Sowerby (1806) Sowerby, J. (1806) The British Miscellany: or coloured figures of new, rare, or little known animal subjects.
This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [Erebia ligea]
Spuler (1910) Spuler, A. (1910) Die Schmetterlinge Europas.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Papilio machaon ssp. gorganus, Plate 1]
St.John (1890) St.John, J.S. (1890) Larva Collecting and Breeding.
Stainton (1857) Stainton, H.T. (1857) A Manual of British Butterflies and Moths.
Stainton (1867) Stainton, H.T. (1867) British Butterflies and Moths.
Staudinger (1901) Staudinger, O. (1901) Catalog Der Lepidopteren Des Palaearctischen Faunengebietes.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Coenonympha tullia ssp. scotica: Vol.32, p.66]
Steele (1990) Steele, C. (1990) Woodland Butterflies.
Stephens (1827) Stephens, J.E. (1827) Illustrations of British Entomology (Haustellata Vol.1).
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Pieris napi ssp. sabellicae, p.21, Plate III (Figs.3, 4)]
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Hylephila phyleus, p.102, Plate 10 (Figs. 1,2)], [Pieris brassicae, p.17, Plate III (Figs.1, 2)]
Stephens (1828a) Stephens, J.E. (1828) Illustrations of British Entomology (Haustellata Vol.2).
Stephens (1828b) Stephens, J.E. (1828) Illustrations of British Entomology (Haustellata Vol.3).
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Aricia artaxerxes ssp. salmacis, p.235]
Stephens (1829a) Stephens, J.E. (1829) A Systematic Catalogue of British Insects.
Stephens (1829b) Stephens, J.E. (1829) The Nomenclature of British Insects.
Stephens (1834) Stephens, J.E. (1834) Illustrations of British Entomology (Haustellata Vol.4).
Stephens (1856) Stephens, J.F. (1856) List of the specimens of British animals in the collection of the British Museum.
This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [Erebia ligea], [Pieris rapae]
Stokoe & Stovin (1944) Stokoe, W.J. and Stovin, G.H.T. (1944) The Caterpillars of the British Butterflies.
Stuttard (1890) Stuttard, J. (1890) The Butterfly: Its History, Development, and Attributes.
Sulzer (1776) Sulzer, J.H. (1776) Dr. Sulzers Abgekürtze Geschichte der Insecten nach dem Linaeischen System.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Lycaena alciphron ssp. gordius, p.146, Plate XVIII (Figs. 7, 8)]
Swainson (1820) Swainson, W. (1820) Zoological illustrations, or Original figures and descriptions of new, rare, or interesting animals : selected chiefly from the classes of ornithology, entomology, and conchology, and arranged on the principles of Cuvier and other modern zoologists (Vol.1).
This reference is used in the original description of the following families: [Pieridae: Vol.1, Page(s)]
This reference is used in the original description of the following subfamilies: [Coliadinae: Vol.1, Page(s)]
This reference is used in the original description of the following tribes: [Pierini: Vol.1, Page(s)]
Swainson (1822) Swainson, W. (1822) Zoological illustrations, or, Original figures and descriptions of new, rare, or interesting animals : selected chiefly from the classes of ornithology, entomology, and conchology, and arranged on the principles of Cuvier and other modern zoologists (Vol.2).
This reference is used in the original description of the following tribes: [Heliconiini: Vol.2, Page(s)]
Swainson (1827) Swainson, W. (1827) A Sketch of the Natural Affinities of the Lepidoptera Diurna of Latreille. The Philosophical magazine : or Annals of chemistry, mathematics, astronomy, natural history and general science.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subfamilies: [Heliconiinae: Vol.1, p.185, 187], [Polyommatinae: Vol.1, p.187]
This reference is used in the original description of the following tribes: [Coliadini: Vol.1, p.188], [Polyommatini: Vol.1, p.187]
Swainson (1831) Swainson, W. (1831) Zoological illustrations, or, Original figures and descriptions of new, rare, or interesting animals, selected chiefly from the classes of ornithology, entomology, and conchology, and arranged according to their apparent affinities (Series 2, Vol.2).
This reference is used in the original description of the following tribes: [Theclini: Vol.2, Page(s), Plate 85]
Talbot (1939) Talbot, G. (1939) The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma.
This reference is used in the original description of the following tribes: [Graphiini: Vol.1, p.199]
Temple (1945) Temple, V. (1945) Butterflies and Moths in Britain.
Temple (1949) Temple, V. (1949) British Butterflies.
Thomas (1986) Thomas, J.A. (1986) The RSNC Guide to Butterflies of the British Isles.
Thomas (1999) Thomas, C., Glen, S.W.T., Lewis, O.T., Hill, J.K. and Blakeley, D.S. (1999) Population differentiation and conservation of endemic races: the butterfly, Plebejus argus. Animal Conservation.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Plebejus argus: Vol.2, pp.15-21]
Thomas & Lewington (1991) Thomas, J. and Lewington, R. (1991) The Butterflies of Britain and Ireland.
This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [Vanessa virginiensis]
Thomas & Lewington (2010) Thomas, J. and Lewington, R. (2010) The Butterflies of Britain and Ireland. Edition 2.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Polyommatus icarus ssp. mariscolore, p.132]
Thompson (1937) Thompson, J. Anthony (1937) A new subspecies of Plebejus argus (L.). Privately published.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Plebejus argus ssp. caernensis]
Thompson (1944) Thompson, A. (1944) A new subspecies of Eumensis semele, L.. Entomologist's Record and Journal of Variation.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Hipparchia semele ssp. thyone: Vol.56, p.65]
Thompson (1952) Thompson, J.A. (1952) Butterflies in the Coastal Region of North Wales. Entomologist's Record and Journal of Variation.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Pararge aegeria: Vol.64, pp.161-166]
Thompson & Nelson (2006) Thompson, R. & Nelson, B. (2006) The Butterflies and Moths of Northern Ireland.
Thomson (1969) Thomson, G. (1969) Maniola (Epinephile) jurtina (L.) (Lep. Satyridae) and its forms. Entomologist's Record and Journal of Variation.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Maniola jurtina ssp. insularis: Vol.81, pp.51-58, Plate I (Figs. 1-4, 6-8, 10-12)]
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Maniola jurtina ssp. cassiteridum: Vol.81, pp.51-58], [Maniola jurtina ssp. iernes: Vol.81, pp.51-58], [Maniola jurtina ssp. splendida: Vol.81, pp.51-58]
Thomson (1970a) Thomson, G. (1970) On the Nature of Maniola jurtina splendida B.-White (Lep. Satyridae). Entomologist's Record and Journal of Variation.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Maniola jurtina ssp. splendida: Vol.82, pp.261-268]
Thomson (1970b) Thomson, G. (1970) The Distribution and Nature of Pieris napi thomsoni Warren (Lep. Pieridae). Entomologist's Record and Journal of Variation.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Pieris napi: Vol.82, pp.255-261]
Thomson (1980) Thomson, G. (1980) The Butterflies of Scotland.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Argynnis aglaja, pp.156-159], [Erebia aethiops ssp. caledonia, pp.180-184], [Pararge aegeria ssp. oblita, pp.166-169], [Polyommatus icarus ssp. mariscolore, pp.123-125]
Tolman & Lewington (2008) Tolman, T. and Lewington, R. (2008) Collins Butterfly Guide.
Tucker (1997) Tucker, M. (1997) The Red Admiral Butterfly.
Tutt (1891) Tutt, J.W. (1891) Melanism and Melanochroism in British Lepidoptera.
Tutt (1894) Tutt, J.W. (1894) The Genera Pieris, Schrk., and Euchloe. The Canadian Entomologist.
This reference is used in the original description of the following tribes: [Anthocharini: Vol.26(2), pp.47-48]
Tutt (1896a) Tutt, J.W. (1896) British Butterflies: Being a Popular Handbook for Young Students and Collectors.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Plebejus argus ssp. cretaceus]
Tutt (1896b) Tutt, J.W. (1896) The Classification of British Butterflies. Entomologist's Record and Journal of Variation.
This reference is used in the original description of the following tribes: [Coenonymphini: Vol.7, pp.300-301], [Erebiini: Vol.7, p.301]
Tutt (1906a) Tutt, J.W. (1906) A Natural History of the British Lepidoptera v8 (British Butterflies v1).
This reference is used in the original description of the following tribes: [Hamearini, p.299]
Tutt (1906b) Tutt, J.W. (1906) A Study of the Generic names of the British Lycaenides and their close allies. Entomologist's Record and Journal of Variation.
This reference is used in the original description of the following genera: [Celastrina: Vol.18, p.131]
Tutt (1908) Tutt, J.W. (1908) A Natural History of the British Lepidoptera v9 (British Butterflies v2).
Tutt (1909a) Tutt, J.W. (1909) Plebeius argus var. cretaceus, n. var. P.argus var. masseyi, n. var., P.argus var. corsica, Bell, and Plebeius argyrognomon var. corsica, n. var.. Entomologist's Record and Journal of Variation.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Plebejus argus ssp. cretaceus: Vol.21, pp.58-59], [Plebejus argus ssp. masseyi: Vol.21, pp.58-59]
Tutt (1909b) Tutt, J.W. (1909) A Natural History of the British Lepidoptera v10 (British Butterflies v3).
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Plebejus argus ssp. cretaceus, pp.203-204], [Plebejus argus ssp. masseyi, pp.202-203]
Tutt (1914) Tutt, J.W. (1914) A Natural History of the British Lepidoptera v11 (British Butterflies v4).
Vane-Wright & Ackery (1984) Vane-Wright, R.I. and Ackery, P.R. (1984) The Biology of Butterflies.
Verity (1905-1911) Verity, R. (1905-1911) Rhopalocera Palaearctica, Iconographie et Description des Papillons diurnes de la région paléarctique. Papilionidae et Pieridae.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Pieris napi ssp. britannica, pp.331-332]
Verity (1908) Verity, R. (1908) Rhopalocera Palaearctica, Iconographie et Description des Papillons diurnes de la région paléarctique. Papilionidae et Pieridae.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Anthocharis cardamines ssp. britannica: Vol.1, p.190]
Verity (1911a) Verity, R. (1911) Races inédites de Satyridae européens [Lep. Rhopalocera]. Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Erebia aethiops ssp. caledonia, pp.311-314, Plate I], [Hipparchia semele ssp. scota, pp.311-314, Plate I]
Verity (1911b) Verity, R. (1911) Alcuni Lepidotteri inediti o non ancora figurati. Bollettino della Società entomologica italiana.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Coenonympha pamphilus: Vol.42, p.271]
Verity (1913a) Verity, R. (1913) Revisione dei Tipi Linneani dei Ropaloceri Paleartici. Bollettino della Societa Entomologica Italiana.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Melanargia galathea ssp. serena: Vol.44, p.205]
Verity (1913b) Verity, R. (1913) Contributo allo studio della variazioni nei Lepidotteri. Bollettino della Societa Entomologica Italiana.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Melitaea athalia: Vol.45, p.210]
Verity (1915) Verity, R. (1915) Contributo allo studio della variazione nei Lepidotteri. Bollettino della Societa Entomologica Italiana.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Pyronia tithonus ssp. britanniae: Vol.45, p.220]
Verity (1916) Verity, R. (1916) The British Races of Butterflies: their relationships and nomenclature. Entomologist's Record and Journal of Variation.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Leptidea sinapis: Vol.28, p.98], [Pieris napi ssp. britannica: Vol.28, pp.73-80, 97-102, 128-133, 165-174]
Verity (1919) Verity, R. (1919) Seasonal Polymorphism and Races of some European Grypocera. Entomologist's Record and Journal of Variation.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Celastrina argiolus ssp. britanna: Vol.31, p.46]
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Lysandra bellargus: Vol.31, pp.26-31], [Ochlodes sylvanus: Vol.31, p.28]
Verity (1923) Verity, R. (1923) Races and Seasonal Polymorphism of the Grypocera and of the Rhopalocera of Peninsular Italy. Entomologist's Record and Journal of Variation.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Hamearis lucina: Vol.35 (Suppl.), pp.13-14]
Verity (1924) Verity, R. (1924) Geographical Variation in Hipparchia semele, L.. Entomologist's Record and Journal of Variation.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Hipparchia semele: Vol.36, pp.21-26]
Verity (1926) Verity, R. (1926) Zeitschrift für wissenschaftliche Insektenbiologie.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Coenonympha pamphilus: Vol.21, p.205]
Verity (1929) Verity, R. (1929) Bulletin de la Société entomologique de France.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Argynnis adippe, p.279]
Verity (1934) Verity, R. (1934) The Lowland Races of Butterflies of the Upper Rhone Valley. Entomologist's Record and Journal of Variation.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Polyommatus bellargus: Vol.46, p.30]
Verity (1947) Verity, R. (1947) Le Farfalle diurne d'Italia.
This reference is used in the original description of the following tribes: [Leptideini: Vol.3, p.114]
Voorst (1858) van Voorst, J. (1858) An Accentuated List of the British Lepidoptera.
Wallengren (1853) Wallengren, H.D.J. (1853) Skandinaviens Dagfjärilar. lepidoptera Scandinaviæ Rhopalocera, disposita et descripta.
This reference is used in the original description of the following genera: [Aphantopus, p.9, 30]
Warren (1936) Warren, B.C.S. (1936) Monograph of the genus Erebia.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Erebia epiphron ssp. mnemon, pp.105-106], [Erebia epiphron ssp. scotica, Plate 67 (figs. 754 and 756)]
Warren (1942) Warren, B.C.S. (1942) The Entomologist.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subgenera: [Pandoriana: Vol.75, pp.245-246]
Warren (1967) Warren, B.C.S. (1967) Supplementary Data on the Androconial Scales of some Holarctic species of Pieris (Lepidoptera). Entomologist's Record and Journal of Variation.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Pieris napi: Vol.79, pp.139-143, Plate 6, 7]
Warren (1968) Warren, B.C.S. (1968) On an instable race of Pieris adalwinda, located in Scotland. Entomologist's Record and Journal of Variation.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Pieris napi ssp. thomsoni: Vol.80, pp.299-302]
Watkins (1923) Watkins, H.T.G. (1923) A new Argynnis Race. The Entomologist.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Argynnis aglaja: Vol.56, p.108]
Werneburg (1864) Werneburg, A. (1864) Beiträge zur Schmetterlingskunde.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Lycaena dispar ssp. rutilus: Vol.1, p.391]
West (1993) West, I. (1993) The Swallowtail Butterfly.
Westwood (1841) Westwood, J.O. (1841) British Butterflies and their Transformations.
This reference is used in the original description of the following genera: [Lasiommata, p.65]
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Parnassius apollo, p.12], [Satyrium ilicis, p.90]
This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [Erebia epiphron], [Melanargia galathea], [Satyrium w-album]
Westwood (1855) Westwood, J.O. (1855) The Butterflies of Great Britain.
Wheeler (1903) Wheeler, G. (1903) The butterflies of Switzerland and the Alps of central Europe.
This reference is used in the original description of the following tribes: [Melanargiini, p.142]
White (1871) White, F.B. (1871) The Lepidoptera of Scotland. Scottish Naturalist.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Maniola jurtina ssp. splendida: Vol.1, p.200]
Wilkes (1742) Wilkes, B. (1742) Twelve New Designs of English Butterflies.
This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [Aglais io], [Aglais urticae], [Anthocharis cardamines], [Apatura iris], [Argynnis adippe], [Argynnis aglaja], [Argynnis paphia], [Boloria selene], [Colias croceus], [Hipparchia semele], [Limenitis camilla], [Melanargia galathea], [Nymphalis polychloros], [Papilio machaon], [Polygonia c-album], [Polyommatus icarus], [Pyronia tithonus]
Wilkes (1749) Wilkes, B. (1749) The English moths and butterflies: together with the plants, flowers and fruits whereon they feed, and are usually found.
This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [Anthocharis cardamines], [Apatura iris], [Callophrys rubi], [Euphydryas aurinia], [Lasiommata megera], [Melanargia galathea], [Melitaea athalia], [Melitaea cinxia], [Nymphalis antiopa], [Pararge aegeria], [Pieris brassicae], [Pieris napi], [Pieris rapae], [Polyommatus icarus], [Pyrgus malvae], [Thecla betulae], [Vanessa atalanta]
Wilkes (1773) Wilkes, B. (1773) One Hundred and Twenty Copper-Plates of English Moths and Butterflies.
Williams (1916) Williams, H.B. (1916) Notes on the life-history and variation of Euchloë cardamines L.. Transactions of City of London Natural History Society.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Anthocharis cardamines ssp. hibernica, pp.62-84]
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Anthocharis cardamines ssp. britannica: Vol.1915, pp.62-84]
Williams (1930) Williams, C.B. (1930) The Migration of Butterflies.
Williams (1946) Williams, H. (1946) The Irish form of Leptidea sinapis. The Entomologist.
This reference is used in the original description of the following subtaxa: [Leptidea juvernica: Vol.79, pp.1-2]
Willmott (1990) Willmott, K. (1990) The Purple Emperor Butterfly.
Willmott (1999) Willmott, K. (1999) The Holly Blue Butterfly.
Wilson (1880) Wilson, O.S. (1880) The Larvae Of the British Lepidoptera and Their Food Plants.
Wiltshire (1967) Wiltshire, E.P. (1967) A Holiday in Ross-shire, Scotland in late July 1967 with notes on the Lepidoptera. Entomologist's Record and Journal of Variation.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Coenonympha pamphilus ssp. rhoumensis: Vol.79, pp.310-313]
Wollaston (1856) Wollaston, G.B. (1856) Capture of Parnassius Apollo at Dover; also Argynnis Lathonia, Chrysophanus dispar and Catocala Fraxini, near Chiselhurst, in Kent. Zoologist.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Parnassius apollo: Vol.14, p.5001]
Wood (1839) Wood, W. (1839) Index Entomologicus; or, A Complete Illustrated Catalogue, Consisting of 1944 Figures, of the Lepidopterous Insects of Great Britain.
Wood (1852) Wood, W. (1852) Index Entomologicus; or, A Complete Illustrated Catalogue, Consisting of 1944 Figures, of the Lepidopterous Insects of Great Britain. Edition 2.
This reference defines historical vernacular names of the following species: [Leptidea sinapis], [Satyrium pruni]
Worms (1949) de Worms, C.G.M. (1949) An Account of some of the British Forms of Plebeius argus, Linn.. The Raven Entomological and Natural History Society.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Plebejus argus, pp.28-30]
Zeller (1847) Zeller, P.C. (1847) Isis von Oken.
This reference is used in the description of the following subtaxa: [Aricia agestis: Vol.40, p.155], [Pieris rapae: Vol.40, p.221]