Duke of Burgundy

Hamearis lucina (ha-mee-AY-riss loo-SY-nuh)

Duke of Burgundy - Denge Wood 15th-May-2016
Photo © Testudo Man
 

Wingspan
Male: 29 - 32mm
Female: 31 - 34mm

Checklist Number
60.001

Family:RiodinidaeGrote, 1895
Subfamily:RiodininaeGrote, 1895
Tribe:HameariniTutt, 1906
Genus:HamearisHübner, [1819]
Subgenus:  
Species:lucina(Linnaeus, 1758)

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Introduction

The Duke of Burgundy is the sole representative of a subfamily known as the "metalmarks", since some of its cousins, particularly those found in south America, have a metallic appearance. A curious characteristic of this subfamily is that the female has 6 fully-functional legs, whereas the male has only 4 - the forelegs being greatly reduced. The Duke of Burgundy was once classified as a fritillary, given the similarity with those fritillary species found in the British Isles. This butterfly is found mainly in central southern England, although scattered colonies are found elsewhere such as in the north of England in Cumbria and Yorkshire. This species is not found in Wales, Scotland, Ireland, the Isle of Man or the Channel Islands. Although relatively-large colonies exist, most colonies only contain around a dozen individuals at the peak of the flight season.

Taxonomy Notes

Verity (1923) names the English race ssp. parvifulvior, comparing it with the race fulvior (Rocci, 1905) which is larger in size and shows extensive warm toned ground colour: "A series from Belstead Wood, near Ipswich, is markedly fulvior and warm in tone, but of the smaller (23mm.) nymotypical lucina size. I think it will be convenient to introduce the name parvifulvior for it".

Hamearis lucina

This species was first defined in Linnaeus (1758) as shown here (type locality: Europe).

Duke of Burgundy - Heyshott Escarpment, Sussex 4-May-2015

Male
Photo © Neil Hulme

Duke of Burgundy male - Noar Hill, Hampshire 2013

Male Underside
Photo © Mike Young

Duke of Burgundy - Storrington, Sussex 23-May-2016

Female
Photo © Neil Hulme

Duke of Burgundy female - Noar Hill 2010

Female Underside
Photo © Mike Young

Photo Album ...


History

The table below shows a chronology of vernacular names attributed to this species. Any qualification of the name (e.g. male, female) is shown in brackets after the name.

YearNameReference
1699Mr. Vernon's Small FritillaryPetiver (1695-1703)
1766Duke of Burgundy Fritillaria or 'The Burgundy'Harris (1766)
1832DukeRennie (1832)
1853Duke of Burgundy FritillaryMorris (1853)
1959Duke of BurgundyHeslop (1959)

Conservation Status

Long-term distribution and population trends show that this butterfly is in serious decline. It is therefore a priority species for conservation efforts. It is thought that this species is unable to survive intensive grazing of chalk and limestone grasslands and that this is, at least, one possible cause of the decline. It is also unable to tolerate areas where the foodplant becomes too shaded by surrounding shrubs and grasses. A delicate balance therefore exists that requires specific site management to cater for this delightful little butterfly.

UK BAP StatusOccurrence Change
1976-2014 (%)
Abundance Change
1976-2014 (%)
Occurrence Change
2005-2014 (%)
Abundance Change
2005-2014 (%)
Priority Species
Click here to access the Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) for this species.
Large Decrease-84
Decrease-42
Stable+3
Large Increase+67

The table above shows the occurrence (distribution) and abundance (population) trends, using information from The State of the UK's Butterflies 2015 (Fox, 2015). Any UK BAP status is taken from the UK Biodiversity Action Plan (UK BAP) (2007 review).

Habitat

This butterfly was, in the past, primarily known as a woodland butterfly, where it fed on Primroses growing in dappled sunlight, with a number of colonies in chalk and limestone grassland. However, the cessation of coppicing in woodlands has had a marked effect on this species, with many woodland colonies dying out as a result. Primrose is used as the larval foodplant in woodland, whereas Cowslip is used on grassland.

Distribution

 

Click here to see the distribution of this species or here to see the distribution of this species together with specific site information overlaid.

Life Cycle

There is one brood each year, with the adults emerging at the end of April in southern sites, peaking in the middle of May. A partial second brood may appear in some years, but this is the exception, rather than the rule, and only occurs in certain sites in the south of England.

The chart(s) above have been correlated with the phenology plot below, taken from the UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme. The blue line gives average counts over the full data set from 1976 to date, and the red line gives the average for the last year.

Imago

The sexes are similar in appearance, although the female tends to have more orange on the wings and rounder tips to the forewings. The male and female can also be distinguished by behaviour. The fast-flying males are extremely territorial and will sit on a favourite perch, darting out to inspect anything that might be a passing female. Once a virgin female is encountered, the two mate without any discernable courtship. This is usually in mid-morning just after the females have emerged. The flight of the female is not as rapid as the male and they are often seen when egg-laying as they move from plant to plant, landing on the edge of a leaf before curling their abdomen to lay on the underside of the leaf.

Adults only occasionally nectar, usually in warmer weather, with Wood Spurge, Buttercup, Hawthorn and Bugle being favourites. Both sexes roost in tall scrub or trees.

Adults feed primarily on Tormentil (Potentilla erecta). Bugle (Ajuga reptans), Buttercups (Ranunculus spp.), Hawthorns (various) (Crataegus spp.) and Wood Spurge (Euphorbia amygdaloides) are also used.

Hamearis lucina

Duke of Burgundy - image - Noar Hill - 14-May-14

Photo © Pete Eeles
14-May-2014

Duke of Burgundy (female), West Sussex (19 May 2012)

Photo © Mark Colvin
19-May-2012

Duke of Burgundy, Male, Noar Hill, 01/05/2015

Photo © Pauline
01-May-2015

Duke of Burgundy Male - Noar Hill, Hampshire 28-April-10

Photo © Vince Massimo
28-Apr-2010

Duke of Burgundy - Denge Wood 15th-May-2016

Photo © Testudo Man

Duke of Burgundy

Photo © Gruditch
11-May-2008

Dukeof Burgundy pair - Heyshott Escarpment 20-May-2016

Photo © Neil Hulme
20-May-2016

Duke-of-Burgundy- 5D39075 Dunstable May 2013

Photo © IainLeach

Duke of Burgundy - imago - Nr Stockbridge Down - 08-May-09 (1)

Photo © Pete Eeles
08-May-2009

Duke of Burgundy, Male - Denge Wood, Kent 24-May-12

Photo © essexbuzzard
24-May-2012

Duke of Burgundy - Wiltshire - 05-05-2014

Photo © Wurzel

Duke of Burgndy pair (female second mating) - Storrington, Sussex 5-June-2016

Photo © Neil Hulme
05-Jun-2016

Duke of Burgundy - Noar Hill - 15 May 2010 (2)

Photo © Clive
15-May-2010

P1030028a Duke of Burgundy, Noar Hill, 30/04/2012

Photo © Pauline
30-Apr-2012

Duke-of-Burgundy Dunstable 1 May 2011- 03C3071

Photo © IainLeach

Duke of Burgundy (ovipositing female) - Heyshott Escarpment, Sussex 19-May-2012

Photo © Neil Hulme
19-May-2012

Duke of Burgundy Pair - Noar Hill, Hampsire 28-April-10

Photo © Vince Massimo
28-Apr-2010

Duke of Burgundy - imago - Thatcham - 15-May-10 (3) {REARED}

Photo © Pete Eeles
15-May-2010

Duke-of-Burgundy Dunstable 22 May 2010- I9T2693

Photo © IainLeach

Duke of Burgundy - imago - Nr. Stockbridge Down - 18-Apr-07 (1)

Photo © Pete Eeles
18-Apr-2007

Photo Album (84 photos) ...


Ovum

Eggs are normally laid singly, or in small batches of just 3 or 4 eggs, on the underside of the edge of a leaf of the foodplant. Nearby foliage may be used on occasion, especially when the foodplant is within dense vegetation. Large, lush, green-leaved plants are typically used, either among grasses or close to scrub. Snails are known to cause heavy losses of eggs, as they feed on primula leaves during the spring. Eggs hatch in 1 to 3 weeks, depending on the weather.

Duke of Burgundy - ovum - Nr Stockbridge - 28-April-09 (1)

Photo © Pete Eeles
28-Apr-2009

Duke of  Burgundy eggs - Arundel, Sussex 12-May-2012

Photo © Neil Hulme
12-May-2012

Duke of Burgundy - ovum- Noar Hill - 20-May-14-7

Photo © Pete Eeles
20-May-2014

Duke of Burgundy - ovum- Noar Hill - 20-May-14-8

Photo © Pete Eeles
20-May-2014

Duke of Burgundy - ovum- Noar Hill - 20-May-14-9

Photo © Pete Eeles
20-May-2014

Duke of Burgundy - ovum- Noar Hill - 20-May-14-10

Photo © Pete Eeles
20-May-2014

Duke of Burgundy - ovum- Noar Hill - 20-May-14-11

Photo © Pete Eeles
20-May-2014

Duke of Burgundy - ovum- Noar Hill - 20-May-14-12

Photo © Pete Eeles
20-May-2014

Duke of Burgundy - ovum- Noar Hill - 20-May-14

Photo © Pete Eeles
20-May-2014

Duke of Burgundy, Ova, Noar Hill, 08/05/2015

Photo © Pauline
08-May-2015

Duke of Burgundy - ovum - Noar Hill - 01-Jun-15-12

Photo © Pete Eeles
01-Jun-2015

Duke of Burgundy - ovum - Noar Hill - 01-Jun-15-18

Photo © Pete Eeles
01-Jun-2015

Duke of Burgundy - ovum - Noar Hill - 23-May-15-2

Photo © Pete Eeles
23-May-2015

Duke of Burgundy - ovum - Noar Hill - 23-May-15

Photo © Pete Eeles
23-May-2015

Photo Album (14 photos) ...


Larva

On hatching, the young larva eats its eggshell before moving to the base of the foodplant, feeding only at night. Larvae emerge at dusk, and can be found in torchlight, usually feeding on the upperside of the leaves. A tell-tale sign of a larva is a characteristic patchwork of holes made in the leaf surface, leaving the major veins intact. There are 3 moults in total and this stage lasts around 6 weeks.

The primary larval foodplants are Cowslip (Primula veris) and Primrose (Primula vulgaris). False Oxlip (Primula veris x vulgaris) is also used.

Duke of Burgundy larva, Noar Hill, 20/06/2015

Photo © Pauline
20-Jun-2015

Duke of Burgundy larva, Noar Hill, 13/06/2015

Photo © Pauline
13-Jun-2015

Duke of Burgundy - larva - Thatcham - 27-Jun-14 [REARED]

Photo © Pete Eeles
27-Jun-2014

Duke of Burgundy - larva - Noar Hill - 02-Jun-15-96

Photo © Pete Eeles
02-Jun-2015

Duke of Burgundy - larva - Thatcham - 20-Jun-09 (2) {REARED}

Photo © Pete Eeles
20-Jun-2009

Duke of Burgundy - larva - Thatcham - 20-Jun-09 (3) {REARED}

Photo © Pete Eeles
20-Jun-2009

Duke of Burgundy - larva - Noar Hill - 09-Jul-15-40

Photo © Pete Eeles
09-Jul-2015

Duke of Burgundy - larva - Noar Hill - 09-Jul-15-34

Photo © Pete Eeles
09-Jul-2015

Duke of Burgundy - larva - Thatcham - 29-Jun-09 (1) {REARED}

Photo © Pete Eeles
29-Jun-2009

Duke of Burgundy - larva - Noar Hill - 02-Jun-15-68

Photo © Pete Eeles
02-Jun-2015

Duke of Burgundy - larva - Noar Hill - 09-Jul-15-26

Photo © Pete Eeles
09-Jul-2015

Duke of Burgundy larva, Noar Hill, 04/07/2015

Photo © Pauline
04-Jul-2015

Duke of Burgundy larva, eggs and feeding damage - Storrington, Sussex 28-June-2015

Photo © Neil Hulme
28-Jun-2015

Duke of Burgundy larva, Noar Hill, 13/06/2015

Photo © Pauline
13-Jun-2015

Duke of Burgundy - larva - Noar Hill - 02-Jun-15-53

Photo © Pete Eeles
02-Jun-2015

Duke of Burgundy larva, Noar Hill, 06/06/2015

Photo © Pauline
06-Jun-2015

Duke of Burgundy - larva - Noar Hill - 02-Jun-15-50

Photo © Pete Eeles
02-Jun-2015

Duke of Burgundy - larva - Noar Hill - 10-Jun-15-2

Photo © Pete Eeles
10-Jun-2015

Duke of Burgundy larva, Noar Hill, 30/05/2015

Photo © Pauline
30-May-2015

Duke od Burgundy larva, Noar Hill, 23/06/2015

Photo © Pauline
23-Jun-2015

Photo Album (28 photos) ...


1st Instar

Description to be completed.

2nd Instar

Description to be completed.

3rd Instar

Description to be completed.

4th Instar

Description to be completed.

Pupa

The pupa is usually formed away from the foodplant in leaf litter, a grass tussock or other vegetation, secured by a silk girdle and the cremaster. It is believed that shrews are responsible for heavy losses during the pupal stage in which this species hibernates.

Duke of Burgundy - pupa - Thatcham - 07-May-05 [REARED]

Photo © Pete Eeles
07-May-2005

Duke of Burgundy - pupa - Thatcham - 25-Mar-05 [REARED]

Photo © Pete Eeles
25-Mar-2005

Duke of Burgundy - pupa - Thatcham - 19-Jul-09 (1) {REARED}

Photo © Pete Eeles
19-Jul-2009

Duke of Burgundy - pupa - Thatcham - 23-Jul-14 [REARED]

Photo © Pete Eeles
23-Jul-2014

Photo Album (4 photos) ...


Aberrations

Description to be completed.

Click here to see the aberration descriptions and images for this species.

Similar Species

No similar species found.

Videos


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The following links provide additional information on this butterfly.

References

The species description provided here references the following publications:

ReferenceDetails
Grote (1895) Grote, A.R. (1895) Systema Lepidopterorum Hildesiae: juxta opera praeliminaria, quae edirunt Bates, Scudder, Guilielmus Mueller, Comstock, Dyar, Chapman.
Hübner (1819) Hübner, J. (1819) Verzeichniss bekannter Schmettlinge.
Harris (1766) Harris, M. (1766) The Aurelian. Edition 1.
Heslop (1959) Hislop, I.R.P. (1959) A new label list of British macrolepidoptera. Entomologist's Gazette.
Linnaeus (1758) Linnaeus, C. (1758) Systema Naturae. Edition 10.
Morris (1853) Morris, Rev.F.O. (1853) A History of British Butterflies.
Petiver (1695-1703) Petiver, J. (1695-1703) Musei Petiveriani centuria prima-decima, rariora naturae continens.
Rennie (1832) Rennie, J. (1832) A conspectus of the butterflies and moths found in Britain, with their English and systematic names, times of appearances, sizes, colours, their caterpillars, and various localities.
Tutt (1906a) Tutt, J.W. (1906) A Natural History of the British Lepidoptera v8 (British Butterflies v1).
Verity (1923) Verity, R. (1923) Races and Seasonal Polymorphism of the Grypocera and of the Rhopalocera of Peninsular Italy. Entomologist's Record and Journal of Variation.