Mountain Ringlet

Erebia epiphron (e-ruh-BEE-uh E-pee-fron)

Mountain Ringlet male - Irton Fell 12.06.2014
Photo © Neil Freeman
 

Wingspan
Male: 32 - 40mm
Female: 32 - 42mm

Checklist Number
59.007

Family:NymphalidaeRafinesque, 1815
Subfamily:SatyrinaeBoisduval, 1833
Tribe:ErebiiniTutt, 1896
Genus:ErebiaDalman, 1816
Subgenus:  
Species:epiphron(Knoch, 1783)
Subspecies:mnemon (Haworth, 1812)
 scotica Cooke, 1943

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Introduction

The Mountain Ringlet is one of our most difficult species to see. It is only found in discrete colonies in remote locations, has an extremely-short flight period and can be very difficult to find in anything other than bright sunshine, since the adults tend to remain sheltered deep in grass tussocks in overcast and cool conditions. Given the right temperature this butterfly will take to the air as soon as the sun shines, bringing an apparently dormant landscape to life. As its name suggests, this butterfly is found in mountainous areas, typically at altitudes between 450 and 800 metres above sea level. The butterfly forms discrete colonies in particular areas of the mountains they inhabit and, on good sites, may be seen by the hundred.

This butterfly is found in two main regions in the British Isles. In England, it is found in the Lake District of Cumberland and Westmorland. It is also found in western central Scotland, primarily in the counties of Argyllshire, West Inverness-shire and Mid Perthshire with a few scattered colonies elsewhere. The butterfly is surprisingly absent from Snowdonia and the Pennines.

On the basis of four specimens in total, this butterfly is also thought to have occurred in Ireland. There is quite a lot of history associated with the Irish Mountain Ringlet as discussed in this related article.

It is believed that this butterfly was one of the first to recolonise the British Isles after the last ice age. Despite this heritage, this species is a relatively-recent discovery, with the Lake District population being discovered in 1809 in Ambleside, Westmorland, and the Scottish population in 1844 in Perthshire.

Erebia epiphron ssp. epiphronHistoric Specimens

The species was first defined in Knoch (1783) as shown here (type locality: Harz Mountains, Germany). The nominate subspecies has not been recorded in the British Isles.

Erebia epiphron ssp. mnemon

This subspecies was first defined in Haworth (1812) as shown here (type locality: Red Screes, Cumbria, England).

This subspecies is found in the Lake District. According to Warren (1936), Haworth (1812) incorrectly states the type locality as Scotland although Stoddart's specimens, the source of Haworth's description, were taken at Red Screes, near Ambleside in Westmorland.

Erebia epiphron ssp. mnemon (Haworth, 1812)

Original (Latin)

alis supra nigro-fuscis, fascia postica communi annulari, annulis coccineis.

Habitat in Scotia.

Obs. Statura et magnitudo Pap. Pamphili. Alae anticae supra annulis quatuor, horum tertius dimidiatus et aliquantillum exterior. Posticae alae annulis tantum duabus, vis. secundus et quartus anticarum alarum. Subtus alae cupreo-fuscae, anticae punctis subtribus fere evanescentibus fuscis fulvo obscure circumcinctis, loco annulorum: posticae fere omnino impunctatae.

In Museo Dom. Francillon, a captore Dom. Stoddart.

Translation

Wings blackish-brown above, the rear band on both wings ringed, with scarlet rings.

Lives in Scotland.

Obs. Size of Pap. Pamphilus. Forewings with four rings above, of which the third is diminished and slightly displaced outward. Hindwings with only two rings, corresponding to the second and fourth of the forewings. Wings coppery brown beneath, the forewings with about three almost vanishing dark points surrounded by ill-defined reddish yellow, in the place of rings: hindwings generally without spots at all.

In the Museum Dom. Francillon, from the collector Dom. Stoddart.

Mountain Ringlet male - Irton Fell, Cumbria 16-June-2013

Male
Photo © Neil Hulme

Mountain Ringlet - male - Irton Fell, Cumbria - 18-Jun-14-9

Male Underside
Photo © Pete Eeles

Mountain Ringlet female - Irton Fell 12.06.2014

Female
Photo © Neil Freeman

Mountain Ringlet - Honister Pass - 19-Jun-11-2 [Paul Brock]

Female Underside
Photo © Paul Brock

Photo Album ...


Erebia epiphron ssp. scotica

This subspecies was first defined in Cooke (1943) (type locality: Loch Rannoch, Perthshire, Scotland).

This subspecies is found in northern Scotland, north of a line between the Clyde Isles in the west and North Aberdeenshire in the east. It is found in most of the western isles and is also present in Orkney. This form differs from ssp. mnemon as follows:

  • 1. It is slightly larger.
  • 2. The red spots are more conspicuous and more elongated.
  • 3. The black dots inside some of the red spots are larger and more pronounced.
  • 4. The underside of the forewings has a more conspicuous and better-defined red band.

Erebia epiphron ssp. scotica (Cooke, 1943)

♂. On the upperside of the fore wings of the Scottish race there is a series of six or seven broad elongated bright red spots, almost forming a band, though interrupted by the veins, rather as in the illustrations of subsp. mackeri on Plate 67 (figs. 754 and 756) of Warren's Monograph of Erebia [Warren (1936)]. In all but one of my 24 specimens this band extends below vein 2. In the Westmorland race the red spots are much less conspicuous and narrower (i.e. less elongated), and do not normally extend below vein 2. It is altogether a more insignificant and duller insect. The black dots inside some of the red spots are considerably larger and more pronounced in the Scottish race. I took one or two with broad elongated red spots entirely lacking in red dots. On the underside of the fore wings the uninterrupted red band is also more conspicuous and better defined in the Scottish race. It measures about 4 mm. in breadth, except for the dent at the centre of the inner edge.

♂. Holotype 15.vii.42, Loch Rannoch, 1800 ft.

Mountain Ringlet - male - Ben Lawers - 15-Jul-15

Male
Photo © Pete Eeles

Mountain Ringlet - male - Ben Lawers - 14-Jul-15

Male Underside
Photo © Pete Eeles

Mountain Ringlet - female - Ben Lawers - 16-Jul-15

Female
Photo © Pete Eeles

Mountain Ringlet - female - Ben Lawers - 16-Jul-15-4

Female Underside
Photo © Pete Eeles

Photo Album ...


History

The table below shows a chronology of vernacular names attributed to this species. Any qualification of the name (e.g. male, female) is shown in brackets after the name.

YearNameReference
1812Small Mountain RingletHaworth (1803)
1812Mountain RingletHaworth (1803)
1841Small RingletWestwood (1841)

Conservation Status

This is one of the more difficult species to monitor given its remote habitats and is generally considered to be under-recorded. However, it is known to have declined at several low altitude sites, possibly as a result of global warming, and is therefore a priority species for conservation efforts.

UK BAP StatusOccurrence Change
1976-2014 (%)
Abundance Change
1976-2014 (%)
Occurrence Change
2005-2014 (%)
Abundance Change
2005-2014 (%)
Priority Species
Click here to access the Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) for this species.
Large Decrease-63
Insufficient Data
Decrease-19
Insufficient Data

The table above shows the occurrence (distribution) and abundance (population) trends, using information from The State of the UK's Butterflies 2015 (Fox, 2015). Any UK BAP status is taken from the UK Biodiversity Action Plan (UK BAP) (2007 review).

Habitat

The butterfly prefers moist or boggy ground in sheltered depressions where the foodplant, Mat-grass, is found in abundance. These are often found in small localised areas on a mountainside resulting in colonies that are highly concentrated.

Distribution

 

Click here to see the distribution of this species or here to see the distribution of this species together with specific site information overlaid.

Life Cycle

There is one generation each year, with adults emerging at the start of June in the Lake District and early July in Scotland. The flight period is extremely short at any given site, in the order of a few weeks only.

Erebia epiphron ssp. mnemon

Erebia epiphron ssp. scotica

Imago

When weather conditions are suitable, males can be seen patrolling back and forth low over the ground, in search of a mate. Any brown object is investigated in the hope of finding a virgin female. The female, on the other hand, is much more sedentary - typically waiting among the grasses for a male to find her. Courtship is brief and a virgin female is quickly mated. She continues to spend most of her time hidden away among the grasses, emerging only to lay or feed from whatever nectar sources are available. Males are also known to take in minerals from damp soil.

Adults feed primarily on Hawkweeds (Hieracium/Hypochoeris), Thyme (Thymus polytrichus) and Tormentil (Potentilla erecta).

Erebia epiphron ssp. mnemon

Mountain Ringlet - male - Irton Fell, Cumbria - 18-Jun-14-11

Photo © Pete Eeles
18-Jun-2014

Mountain Ringlet female - Irton Fell 12.06.2014

Photo © Neil Freeman
12-Jun-2014

Mountain Ringlet female - Irton Fell 12.06. 2014

Photo © Neil Freeman
12-Jun-2014

Mountain Ringlet - female - Irton Fell, Cumbria - 18-Jun-14-6

Photo © Pete Eeles
18-Jun-2014

Mountain Ringlet male - Irton Fell, Cumbria 16-June-2013

Photo © Neil Hulme
16-Jun-2013

Mountain Ringlet - male - Irton Fell, Cumbria - 18-Jun-14-8

Photo © Pete Eeles
18-Jun-2014

Mountain-Ringlet-Irton Fell 11 June 2011 03C4422

Photo © IainLeach

Mountain Ringlet - male - Irton Fell, Cumbria - 18-Jun-14-12

Photo © Pete Eeles
18-Jun-2014

Mountain Ringlet - female - Irton Fell, Cumbria - 18-Jun-14

Photo © Pete Eeles
18-Jun-2014

Mountain-Ringlet-Irton Fell 11 June 2011 03C4183

Photo © IainLeach

Mountain Ringlet: Female Underwings - Grey Knotts, Honister Pass, Cumbria 12/07/2014

Photo © Graham Beckwith
12-Jul-2014

Mountain Ringlet male - Irton Fell, Cumbria 16-June-2013

Photo © Neil Hulme
16-Jun-2013

Mountain Ringlet - female - Irton Fell, Cumbria - 18-Jun-14-7

Photo © Pete Eeles
18-Jun-2014

Mountain Ringlet - Honister Pass - 19-Jun-11-4 [Paul Brock]

Photo © Paul Brock

Mountain Ringlet male - Irton Fell, Cumbria 14-June-2012

Photo © Neil Hulme
14-Jun-2012

SMR fem VG Grey Knotts 8.7.13 [Matthew Oates]

Photo © Matthew Oates

Mountain-Ringlet-Irton Fell 11 June 2011 03C4295

Photo © IainLeach

Mountain Ringlet male - Irton Fell, Cumbria 16-June-2013

Photo © Neil Hulme
16-Jun-2013

Mountain Ringlet - imago - Langdale Pikes - 10-Jul-05 [Graham Smith]

Photo © Graham Smith

Mountain Ringlet - male - Irton Fell, Cumbria - 18-Jun-14-10

Photo © Pete Eeles
18-Jun-2014

Photo Album (48 photos) ...


Erebia epiphron ssp. scotica

Mountain Ringlet - imago - Ben Lawers - 13-Jul-05 (18)

Photo © Pete Eeles
18-Jul-2005

Mountain Ringlet - male - Ben Lawers - 16-Jul-15-20

Photo © Pete Eeles
16-Jul-2015

Mountain Ringlet - male - Ben Lawers - 14-Jul-15-24

Photo © Pete Eeles
14-Jul-2015

Mountain Ringlet - imago - Ben Lawers - 15-Jul-15

Photo © Pete Eeles
15-Jul-2015

Mountain Ringlet - male - Ben Lawers - 16-Jul-15-19

Photo © Pete Eeles
16-Jul-2015

Mountain Ringlet - male - Ben Lawers - 16-Jul-15-15

Photo © Pete Eeles
16-Jul-2015

Mountain Ringlet - female - Ben Lawers - 14-Jul-15

Photo © Pete Eeles
14-Jul-2015

Mountain Ringlet - male - Ben Lawers - 16-Jul-15-23

Photo © Pete Eeles
16-Jul-2015

Mountain Ringlet - male - Ben Lawers - 14-Jul-15

Photo © Pete Eeles
14-Jul-2015

Mountain Ringlet - male - Ben Lawers - 14-Jul-15-20

Photo © Pete Eeles
14-Jul-2015

Mountain Ringlet - imago - Ben Lawers - 13-Jul-05 (3)

Photo © Pete Eeles
15-Jul-2005

Mountain Ringlet - female - Ben Lawers - 16-Jul-15-3

Photo © Pete Eeles
16-Jul-2015

Mountain Ringlet - male - Ben Lawers - 14-Jul-15-23

Photo © Pete Eeles
14-Jul-2015

Mountain Ringlet - male - Ben Lawers - 15-Jul-15-2

Photo © Pete Eeles
15-Jul-2015

Mountain Ringlet - female - Ben Lawers - 16-Jul-15

Photo © Pete Eeles
16-Jul-2015

Mountain Ringlet - male - Ben Lawers - 16-Jul-15-21

Photo © Pete Eeles
16-Jul-2015

Mountain Ringlet - male - Ben Lawers - 16-Jul-15-24

Photo © Pete Eeles
16-Jul-2015

Mountain Ringlet - female - Ben Lawers - 14-Jul-15-4

Photo © Pete Eeles
14-Jul-2015

Mountain Ringlet - male - Ben Lawers - 16-Jul-15-16

Photo © Pete Eeles
16-Jul-2015

Mountain Ringlet - imago - Ben Lawers - 13-Jul-05 (13)

Photo © Pete Eeles
15-Jul-2005

Photo Album (31 photos) ...


Ovum

Eggs are laid singly on a blade of Mat-grass. They are pale cream when first laid, but develop brown blotches after a few days. This stage lasts 2 or 3 weeks depending on the weather. The egg is relatively-large compared with the size of the butterfly, with each female laying up to 70 eggs.

Mountain Ringlet - ovum - Irton Fell, Cumbria - 18-Jun-14-3

Photo © Pete Eeles
18-Jun-2014

Mountain Ringlet - ovum - Irton Fell, Cumbria - 18-Jun-14-4

Photo © Pete Eeles
18-Jun-2014

Mountain Ringlet - ovum - Irton Fell, Cumbria - 18-Jun-14

Photo © Pete Eeles
18-Jun-2014

Mountain Ringlet - ovum - Irton Fell - 29-Jun-14-5

Photo © Pete Eeles
29-Jun-2014

Mountain Ringlet - ovum - Irton Fell - 29-Jun-14-6

Photo © Pete Eeles
29-Jun-2014

Mountain Ringlet - ovum - Irton Fell - 29-Jun-14-7

Photo © Pete Eeles
29-Jun-2014

Mountain Ringlet - ovum - Irton Fell - 29-Jun-14-8

Photo © Pete Eeles
29-Jun-2014

Mountain Ringlet - ovum - Irton Fell - 29-Jun-14

Photo © Pete Eeles
29-Jun-2014

Photo Album (8 photos) ...


Larva

The larva eats its eggshell after hatching and selects the tenderest leaf tips on which to feed. As winter approaches, the 3rd instar larvae will crawl deep into grass tussocks where they hibernate. They emerge in the spring and recommence feeding. It is believed that some slow-developing larvae may spend two years in this stage, usually the result of a late spring and short summer.

The primary larval foodplant is Mat-grass (Nardus stricta).

Erebia epiphron - Larva, prior to pupation [Wolfgang Wagner]

Photo © Wolfgang Wagner
www.pyrgus.de

Mountain Ringlet - larva - Irton Fell - 07-Aug-14

Photo © Pete Eeles
07-Aug-2014

Mountain Ringlet - larva - Irton Fell - 12-Jul-14

Photo © Pete Eeles
12-Jul-2014

Mountain RInglet - larva - Irton Fell - 19-Jul-14 -2

Photo © Pete Eeles
20-Jul-2014

Mountain RInglet - larva - Irton Fell - 19-Jul-14

Photo © Pete Eeles
20-Jul-2014

Mountain Ringlet - larva - Irton Fell - 23-Aug-14-2

Photo © Pete Eeles
23-Aug-2014

Mountain Ringlet - larva - Irton Fell - 23-Aug-14

Photo © Pete Eeles
23-Aug-2014

Mountain Ringlet - larva - Irton Fell - 24-Jul-14

Photo © Pete Eeles
24-Jul-2014

Mountain Ringlet - larva (1st instar) - Irton Fell - 27-Jun-14

Photo © Pete Eeles
28-Jun-2014

Mountain Ringlet - larva (1st instar) - Irton Fell - 29-Jun-14

Photo © Pete Eeles
29-Jun-2014

Photo Album (10 photos) ...


1st Instar

Description to be completed.

2nd Instar

Description to be completed.

3rd Instar

Description to be completed.

4th Instar

Description to be completed.

Pupa

The pupa is formed deep in grass tussocks, within a loose silk structure and this stage lasts around 3 weeks. It is believed that many pupae are eaten by voles.

Erebia epiphron - Pupa [Wolfgang Wagner]

Photo © Wolfgang Wagner
www.pyrgus.de

Photo Album (1 photos) ...


Aberrations

Description to be completed.

Click here to see the aberration descriptions and images for this species.

Similar Species

Scotch Argus

Description to be completed.

Videos


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The following links provide additional information on this butterfly.

References

The species description provided here references the following publications:

ReferenceDetails
Boisduval (1833) Boisduval, J.A. (1833) Icones historiques des Lépidoptères d'Europe nouveaux.
Cooke (1943) Cooke, B.H. (1943) The Scottish Race of Erebia epiphron. The Entomologist.
Dalman (1816) Dalman, J.W. (1816) Kongl. Svenska Vetenskaps akademiens Handlingar.
Haworth (1803) Haworth, A.H. (1803) Lepidoptera Britannica.
Haworth (1812) Haworth, A.H. (1812) A brief account of some rare insects announced at various times to the Society, as new to Britain. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London.
Knoch (1783) Knoch, A.W. (1783) Beiträge zur Insektengeschichte.
Rafinesque (1815) Rafinesque, C.S. (1815) Analyse de la nature ou Tableau de l'univers et des corps organisés.
Tutt (1896b) Tutt, J.W. (1896) The Classification of British Butterflies. Entomologist's Record and Journal of Variation.
Warren (1936) Warren, B.C.S. (1936) Monograph of the genus Erebia.
Westwood (1841) Westwood, J.O. (1841) British Butterflies and their Transformations.