Small Apollo

Parnassius phoebus (par-NA-see-uss FEE-bus)

Small Apollo male - Valais, France 12-July-2012
Photo © Roger Gibbons
 

Checklist Number
56.0003

Family:PapilionidaeLatreille, 1802
Subfamily:ParnassiinaeDuponchel, 1835
Tribe:ParnassiiniDuponchel, 1835
Genus:ParnassiusLatreille, 1804
Subgenus:  
Species:phoebus(Fabricius, 1793)

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Introduction

Meyrick (1887) records the capture of a single specimen on 1st September 1887 by E.W.S. Schwabe, a pupil at Marlborough College, in the mountains above the Penrhyn slate quarries, about 7 miles from Bangor in Caernarvonshire, Wales: "A specimen of Parnassius Delius [a synonym of Parnassius phoebus] was taken this summer near Bangor by Mr. E. W. S. Schwabe, a youthful pupil of this College, and was lately submitted to me for identification. It is the ordinary alpine form of this species, which is stated to be more restricted in range, and more exclusively alpine, than the commoner P. Apollo. Mr. Schwabe informs me that he took the specimen on September 1st in the mountains above the Penrhyn slate quarries, about seven miles from Bangor, near three small lakes; the sun was shining, but there had been rain earlier, and the insect was in a semi-torpid condition, and easily captured; it is rather worn. There can be no question of the authenticity of the capture; yet I think it must be regarded as highly improbable that the species is a native of these shores, or even an occasional immigrant. The most reasonable explanation seems to me to be that some admirer of the insect has imported pupae, bred the butterflies, and turned them out in the Welsh mountains as the most suitable situation, in the hope that the species might establish itself. Perhaps some information may now be forthcoming. - E. Meyrick, The College, Marlborough: September 25th, 1887".

It is thought that this specimen was either a deliberate release of a captive-bred individual, or the result of an immature stage that had been imported in alpine plants (the primary foodplant being Yellow Saxifrage, Saxifraga aizoides), which are grown in rock gardens.

Parnassius phoebus

This species was first defined in Fabricius (1793) as shown here (type locality: Siberia).

Small Apollo male - Valais, France 12-July-2012

Male
Photo © Roger Gibbons

Small Apollo underside, Parc du Mercantour, Alpes-Maritimes, France, 10th July 2014

Male Underside
Photo © David M

Small Apollo female upperside - Switzerland July 2006

Female
Photo © Padfield

Small Apollo female - Hautes-Alpes, France 14-July-2011 (27186)

Female Underside
Photo © Roger Gibbons

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History

Description to be completed.

Conservation Status

No conservation action is relevant for this species.

Habitat

Description to be completed.

Distribution

2. Adventive
 

This species is considered an adventive, which is a species which arrives in the British Isles with the direct assistance of an external vector, without which it would not be present. Adventives are species that one would not expect to find in this country, either through inadvertent migration or through any other natural means of dispersal, with the exception perhaps of the most extreme meteorological event or possibly the transportation of a stage in the life cycle in a highly unlikely but natural means (e.g. an ovum or larva being transported upon the foot, bill, or plumage of a migratory bird).

Life Cycle

Description to be completed.

Imago

Description to be completed.

Description to be completed.

Parnassius phoebus

Small Apollo male upperside - Switzerland July 2006

Photo © Padfield

Small Apollo female upperside - Switzerland July 2006

Photo © Padfield

Small Apollo female - Hautes-Alpes, France 14-July-2011 (27186)

Photo © Roger Gibbons
14-Jul-2011

Small Apollo male - Valais, France 12-July-2012

Photo © Roger Gibbons
12-Jul-2012

Small Apollo, Parc du Mercantour, Alpes-Maritimes, France, 10th July 2014

Photo © David M

Small Apollo underside, Parc du Mercantour, Alpes-Maritimes, France, 10th July 2014

Photo © David M

Small Apollo, Parc du Mercantour, Alpes Maritimes, 7th July 2016

Photo © David M

Photo Album (7 photos) ...


Ovum

Description to be completed.

Parnassius phoebus - Egg [Wolfgang Wagner]

Photo © Wolfgang Wagner
www.pyrgus.de

Photo Album (1 photos) ...


Larva

Description to be completed.

Description to be completed.

Parnassius phoebus - larva [Wolfgang Wagner]

Photo © Wolfgang Wagner
www.pyrgus.de

Photo Album (1 photos) ...


Pupa

Description to be completed.

Parnassius phoebus - pupa [Wolfgang Wagner]

Photo © Wolfgang Wagner
www.pyrgus.de

Photo Album (1 photos) ...


Aberrations

Description to be completed.

Click here to see the aberration descriptions and images for this species.

Similar Species

No similar species found.

Videos


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The following links provide additional information on this butterfly.

References

The species description provided here references the following publications:

ReferenceDetails
Duponchel (1835) Duponchel, P.A.J. (1835) Histoire naturelle des lépidoptères ou papillons de France, par M. J.-B. Godart. Continuée par P.-A.-J. Duponchel. Diurnes. Supplément aux tomes premier et deuxième.
Fabricius (1793) Fabricius, J.C. (1793) Entomologia systematica emendata et aucta, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species.
Latreille (1802) Latreille, P.A. (1802) Histoire naturelle, générale et particulière, des Crustacés et des Insectes.
Latreille (1804) Latreille, P.A. (1804) Nouveau Dictionnaire d'Histoire Naturelle.
Meyrick (1887) Metric, E. (1887) Parnassus delius, Esp., captured in North Wales. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine.