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Butterfly taxonomy (classification) The skippers The swallowtails The whites The hairstreaks, coppers and blues. Includes the Duke of Burgundy. The nymphalids, fritillaries and browns. Includes the Monarch.
Black-Veined White - imago - Thatcham - 20-May-06 (0130) [REARED]
Wingspan
69 - 76mm
Photo © Pete Eeles
Black-veined White

Aporia crataegi
a-POOR-ee-uh
kra-TEE-jee
Number: 58.005
B&F No.: 1548
Family:Pieridae (Duponchel, 1835)
Subfamily:Pierinae (Duponchel, 1835)
Tribe:Pierini (Duponchel, 1835)
Genus:Aporia (Hübner, 1819)
Subgenus: 
Species:crataegi (Linnaeus, 1758)
Extinct
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  Introduction  

First listed as a British species in 1667, this large butterfly became extinct in the British Isles around 1925 with its last remaining stronghold in the south-east of England. This species was always considered a rarity in the British Isles by early entomologists, although it is often very common on the continent.

This species forms discrete colonies that fluctuate greatly in numbers, although the cause of the ultimate demise of this species in the British Isles is a mystery since its foodplants can be found in abundance in all of its former sites. Disease (fostered by poor autumn weather), relatively-mild winters and increased predation by birds have all been suggested as potential causes of this demise. There was a successful reintroduction in Fife, Scotland, although this was only able to survive with appropriate protection of the larvae from birds. This species is extinct in the British Isles. This species was concentrated primarily in the southern half of England and south Wales. The strongholds were in Kent (which held 40 colonies), Hampshire, Gloucestershire and Sussex.

Aporia crataegi

This species was first defined in Linnaeus (1758) as shown here (type locality: Sweden).


Black-Veined White - imago - Gola del Infernaccio, Monti Sibillini, Italy - 16-Jun-08 (2)
Male
Photo © Pete Eeles
Black Veined White - Spain - 21 June 2012
Male Underside
Photo © Nigel Kiteley
Black-Veined White - imago - Lauenensee, Lauenen, Switzerland - 10-Jul-11
Female
Photo © Pete Eeles
Black-Veined White - imago - Stockbridge Down - 27-Jul-07 [Neil Hulme]
Female Underside
Photo © Neil Hulme

  Phenology  

In the British Isles, this species emerged in late June, peaked in July and survived into August. This butterfly has one generation each year.


  Habitat  

Early records of this species showed that it occurred in orchards, lanes, gardens, meadows and wherever its foodplants occurred in abundance.

  Larval Foodplants  

The primary larval foodplants are Blackthorn (Prunus spinosa) and Hawthorns (various) (Crataegus spp.).

  Nectar Sources  

Description to be completed

  Imago  

An interesting characteristic of this species is that the female, by rubbing her wings together, loses many of her scales, resulting in an almost-transparent look when compared with the white wings of the male. The purpose of this behaviour remains a mystery.


Black-Veined White - imago - Thatcham - 14-May-06 (0119) [REARED]
Photo © Pete Eeles
14-May-2006
Black-Veined White - imago - Thatcham - 20-May-06 (0129) [REARED]
Photo © Pete Eeles
20-May-2006
Black-Veined White - imago - Thatcham - 20-May-06 (0130) [REARED]
Photo © Pete Eeles
20-May-2006
Black-Veined White - imago - Stockbridge Down - 27-Jul-07 (2) [Neil Hulme]
Photo © Neil Hulme
Hampshire
Black-Veined White - imago - Stockbridge Down - 27-Jul-07 [Neil Hulme]
Photo © Neil Hulme
Hampshire
Black-Veined White - imago - Unknown location - Unknown date (2) [Guy Padfield]
Photo © Guy Padfield
Black-Veined White - imago - Unknown location - Unknown date [Guy Padfield]
Photo © Guy Padfield
Black-Veined White - imago - Dobriniste, Pirin, Bulgaria - 02-Jul-07 (6)
Photo © Pete Eeles
02-Jul-2007
Black-Veined White - imago - Gola del Infernaccio, Monti Sibillini, Italy - 16-Jun-08 (1)
Photo © Pete Eeles
16-Jun-2008
Black-Veined White - imago - Gola del Infernaccio, Monti Sibillini, Italy - 16-Jun-08 (2)
Photo © Pete Eeles
16-Jun-2008
Black-Veined White - imago - Gola del Infernaccio, Monti Sibillini, Italy - 16-Jun-08 (3)
Photo © Pete Eeles
16-Jun-2008
Black-Veined White - imago - Gola del Infernaccio, Monti Sibillini, Italy - 16-Jun-08 (4)
Photo © Pete Eeles
16-Jun-2008
Black-Veined White - imago - Monti Sibillini, Italy - 15-Jun-08 (1)
Photo © Pete Eeles
15-Jun-2008
Black-Veined White - imago - Monti Sibillini, Italy - 15-Jun-08 (3)
Photo © Pete Eeles
15-Jun-2008
Black-Veined White - imago - Monti Sibillini, Italy - 15-Jun-08 (5)
Photo © Pete Eeles
15-Jun-2008
Black-Veined White - imago - Monti Sibillini, Italy - 15-Jun-08 (6)
Photo © Pete Eeles
15-Jun-2008
Black-Veined White - imago - Monti Sibillini, Italy - 15-Jun-08 (7)
Photo © Pete Eeles
15-Jun-2008
Black Veined White - Spain - 21 June 2012
Photo © Nigel Kiteley
21-Jun-2012
Black Veined White - Spain - 20 June 2012
Photo © Nigel Kiteley
21-Jun-2012
Black Veined White - Spain - 21 June 2012
Photo © Nigel Kiteley
20-Jun-2012
Black-veined White - imago - Creu de Perves, Spain - 24-Jun-10 (1)
Photo © Pete Eeles
Black-Veined White - imago - Lauenensee, Lauenen, Switzerland - 10-Jul-11
Photo © Pete Eeles
Female Black-veined White with ova - 3 June 2013 - Alpes-Maritimes
Photo © CFB
03-Jun-2013
Black-veined White - Var, France 27-May-2007
Photo © Roger Gibbons
27-May-2007
Black-veined White mating + Black-veined moth Bulgaria 18-June-2013
Photo © jamesweightman
18-Jun-2013

  Aberrations  

Description to be completed.

  Ovum  

Eggs are laid in batches of between 100 and 200, generally on the underside of a leaf of the foodplant. Eggs are bright yellow when first laid, darkening after a few days. The eggs hatch in 2 to 3 weeks, depending on temperature.


Black-Veined White - ovum - Thatcham - 15-May-05 [REARED]
Photo © Pete Eeles
15-May-2005
Female Black-veined White with ova - 3 June 2013 - Alpes-Maritimes
Photo © CFB
03-Jun-2013
BVW
Photo © Tony Moore
Near Silves, Portugal. 04.05.14.
08-May-2014
Black-veined White eggs A. crataegi 22.07.2014 Provence [Lynn Fomison]
Photo © Lynn Fomison

  Larva  

The larva eats the majority of its eggshell on hatching before joining a communal larval web. Groups of larvae leave the web to feed side by side but remain within the web through the winter while still very small, in the 3rd instar. After emerging in the spring, the larvae continue this pattern of communal living, continuing to forage in groups. Larvae are particularly sensitive and will drop from the foodplant if disturbed.

As the larvae grow, they tend to form smaller groups that form sub-communities, each group creating their own web on which to rest. Ultimately, the gregarious behaviour is abandoned, and the fully-grown larvae disperse to feed individually prior to pupation.


Black-Veined White - larva - Thatcham - 15-Apr-06 (2) [REARED]
Photo © Pete Eeles
15-Apr-2006
Black-Veined White - larva - Thatcham - 15-Apr-06 (3) [REARED]
Photo © Pete Eeles
15-Apr-2006
Black-Veined White - larva - Thatcham - 15-Apr-06 (5) [REARED]
Photo © Pete Eeles
15-Apr-2006
Black-Veined White - larva - Thatcham - 15-Apr-06 (9) [REARED]
Photo © Pete Eeles
15-Apr-2006
Black-Veined White - larva - Thatcham - 17-Apr-06 [REARED]
Photo © Pete Eeles
17-Apr-2006

  Pupa  

The pupa is attached to a stem of the foodplant by a silk girdle and the cremaster and is often quite conspicuous and easy to find. This stage typically lasts around 3 weeks, depending on temperature.


Black-Veined White - pupa - Thatcham - 13-May-06 (0116) [REARED]
Photo © Pete Eeles
13-May-2006
Black-Veined White - pupa - Thatcham - 26-Apr-06 (3) [REARED]
Photo © Pete Eeles
26-Apr-2006
Black-Veined White - pupa - Thatcham - 26-Apr-06 [REARED]
Photo © Pete Eeles
26-Apr-2006
Black-Veined White - pupa - Gola del Infernaccio, Monti Sibillini, Italy - 16-Jun-08 (2)
Photo © Pete Eeles
16-Jun-2008
Black-Veined White - pupa - Gola del Infernaccio, Monti Sibillini, Italy - 17-Jun-08 (1)
Photo © Pete Eeles
17-Jun-2008
Black-Veined White - pupa - Gola del Infernaccio, Monti Sibillini, Italy - 17-Jun-08 (2)
Photo © Pete Eeles
17-Jun-2008

  Similar Species  

No similar species found.

  Videos  

Video © DAVID ELEMENT
Black veined White Butterflies Aporia crataegi courtship behaviour
Video © ghgames
black-veined white (Aporia crataegi, Baumweissling) in Russia
Video © Guy Padfield
Black-veined white
Video © Filming VarWild
The Black veined White (Aporia crataegi)

  Sites  

No sites found.

  Conservation Status  

No conservation action is relevant for this species.

  Links  

The following links provide additional information on this butterfly.

  References  

The species description provided here references the following publications:

ReferenceDetails
Duponchel (1835) Duponchel, P.A.J. (1835) Histoire naturelle des lépidoptères ou papillons de France, par M. J.-B. Godart. Continuée par P.-A.-J. Duponchel. Diurnes. Supplément aux tomes premier et deuxième.
Hübner (1819) Hübner, J. (1819) Verzeichniss bekannter Schmettlinge.
Linnaeus (1758) Linnaeus, C. (1758) Systema Naturae. Edition 10.

  Copyright © Peter Eeles 2002-2014
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