Dingy Skipper

Erynnis tages (e-RIN-iss TAY-jeez)

Dingy-Skipper- 5D32042. Lincs, May 2015.
Photo © IainLeach
 

Wingspan
27 - 34mm

Checklist Number
57.001

Family:HesperiidaeLatreille, 1809
Subfamily:PyrginaeBurmeister, 1878
Tribe:  
Genus:ErynnisSchrank, 1801
Subgenus:  
Species:tages(Linnaeus, 1758)
Subspecies:tages (Linnaeus, 1758)
 baynesi Huggins, 1956

< Previous SpeciesNext Species >

Introduction

Despite its name, a freshly-emerged Dingy Skipper reveals a subtle pattern of browns and greys that is quite beautiful. However, this butterfly does live up to its name as scales are lost over time, resulting in a lacklustre and drab appearance. This is our most widely-distributed skipper, despite its decline due to changes in farming practice. Colonies can be found throughout the British Isles, including northern Scotland and Ireland where, although scarce, is found on outcrops of limestone. This butterfly's strongholds, however, are in central and southern England. This butterfly lives in discrete colonies with little interchange between them.

Erynnis tages ssp. tages

This species was first defined in Linnaeus (1758) as shown here (type locality: Europe).

The British population is represented by the nominate subspecies, with the exception of the colonies found in the Burren in Clare, Ireland, where it is replaced by the subspecies baynesi.

Dingy Skipper, 18 May 2013, Rake Bottom

Male
Photo © Pauline

Dingy Skipper - imago - Hartslock - 10-May-09 (1)

Male Underside
Photo © Pete Eeles

Dingy-Skipper-Dunstable 30 April 2010 I9T9580

Female
Photo © IainLeach

Dingy Skippers - Ketton Quarry, Rutland 20-May-2010

Female Underside
Photo © benwmbc

Photo Album ...


Erynnis tages ssp. baynesi

This subspecies was first defined in Huggins (1956a).

This subspecies, found in Ireland, is generally restricted to the Burren in Clare, although there are some records from South-east Galway. Baynes (1954) originally noted this subspecies saying "This local race exhibits an unusually large amount of grey marking, and would seem to be a sub-species", but failed to provide any name. This was left to Huggins (1956a) who duly named it after its discoverer. Aldwell & Smyth (2015) state that "... from studying photographs from south Donegal it would seem that subspecies baynesi is also present here".

This subspecies differs from ssp. tages in having a darker ground colour coupled with paler, almost white, markings, giving an overall appearance that has a much greater contrast. Huggins says that there appears to be a much greater range of variation in ssp. baynesi than in the nominate subspecies.

Erynnis tages ssp. baynesi (Huggins, 1956)

♂, ♀. Ground colour brownish-black, light markings very pale grey, often approaching white. Holotype ♂, "Burren, 29.v.56, H.C.Huggins." Allotype ♀, "Burren, 8.vi.56, H.C.Huggins."

Dingy Skipper - imago - Boston, Burren, Clare, Ireland - 30-May-13-6

Male
Photo © Pete Eeles

Male Underside

Dingy Skipper - imago - Boston, Burren, Clare, Ireland - 30-May-13-4

Female
Photo © Pete Eeles

Female Underside

Photo Album ...


History

The table below shows a chronology of vernacular names attributed to this species. Any qualification of the name (e.g. male, female) is shown in brackets after the name.

YearNameReference
1704Handley's Brown ButterflyPetiver (1702-1706)
1706Handley's Brown Hog ButterflyPetiver (1702-1706)
1717Handley's Small Brown ButterflyPetiver (1717)
1766Dingey SkipperHarris (1766)
1824Dingy SkipperJermyn (1824)

Conservation Status

The Dingy Skipper is in decline and is therefore a priority species for conservation efforts.

UK BAP StatusOccurrence Change
1976-2014 (%)
Abundance Change
1976-2014 (%)
Occurrence Change
2005-2014 (%)
Abundance Change
2005-2014 (%)
Priority Species
Click here to access the Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) for this species.
Large Decrease-61
Decrease-19
Increase+21
Large Increase+69

The table above shows the occurrence (distribution) and abundance (population) trends, using information from The State of the UK's Butterflies 2015 (Fox, 2015). Any UK BAP status is taken from the UK Biodiversity Action Plan (UK BAP) (2007 review).

Habitat

The butterfly is found in warm open areas such as south-facing chalk and limestone downland, open hillsides, railway embankments, dunes, cliffs and abandoned quarries. It can also be found at the ends of woodland as well as in woodland clearings and rides.

Distribution

 

Click here to see the distribution of this species or here to see the distribution of this species together with specific site information overlaid.

Life Cycle

The butterfly is on the wing in May and June and, in favourable years, there may be a partial second brood.

Erynnis tages ssp. tages

Erynnis tages ssp. baynesi

The chart(s) above have been correlated with the phenology plot below, taken from the UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme. The blue line gives average counts over the full data set from 1976 to date, and the red line gives the average for the last year.

Imago

Like all skippers, the Dingy Skipper has an extremely fast flight that can be difficult to follow as it flits along, close to the ground. The butterfly is a warmth-loving species, and spends long periods basking on bare earth or a stone that has been baked by the sun. The butterfly prefers to nectar on yellow flowers and has a preference for flowers of Bird's-foot Trefoil, Horseshoe Vetch, Buttercup and Hawkweeds. In the late afternoon, the butterflies gather to roost on dead flowers or grass heads, where they take on a moth-like pose, with wings wrapped around the flower head.

Adults feed primarily on Bird's-foot Trefoil (Lotus corniculatus), Bugle (Ajuga reptans), Buttercups (Ranunculus spp.), Hawkweeds (Hieracium/Hypochoeris), Ragged Robin (Lychnis flos-cuculi) and Vetches (Vicia spp.).

Erynnis tages ssp. tages

Dingy-Skipper- 5D31823. Lincs, May 2015.

Photo © IainLeach

Dingy Skipper

Photo © Gruditch
03-May-2010

Dingy Skipper - imago - Greenham Common - 22-May-12

Photo © Pete Eeles

Dingy Skipper Male - Ballard Down, Dorset 22-May-05

Photo © Vince Massimo
22-May-2005

Dingy-Skipper-Dunstable 30 April 2010 I9T9486

Photo © IainLeach

Dingy Skipper - male - Greenham Common - 07-May-15

Photo © Pete Eeles
07-May-2015

Dingy Skipper - Bishops Hill, Warwickshire, 23.05.2012

Photo © Neil Freeman
23-May-2012

Dingy Skipper pair - Heyshott, Sussex 11-May-2012

Photo © Neil Hulme
11-May-2012

Dingy Skipper Kithurst Sussex 06.05.2015

Photo © Katrina
06-May-2015

Dingy-Skipper-Dunstable 16 May 2010 I9T9053

Photo © IainLeach

Dingy-Skipper- 5D31968. Lincs, May 2015.

Photo © IainLeach

Dingy Skipper - imago - Hartslock - 12-May-10 (1)

Photo © Pete Eeles
12-May-2010

Dingy Skipper - Wyre Forest 26.05.2015

Photo © Neil Freeman
26-May-2015

Dingy-Skipper - Dunstable May 2013 5D36921

Photo © IainLeach

Dingy Skipper - imago - Greenham Common - 06-May-16

Photo © Pete Eeles
06-May-2016

Dingy Skipper - imago - Hartslock - 10-May-09 (1)

Photo © Pete Eeles
10-May-2009

Dingy Skipper - imago - Greenham Common - 12-May-16

Photo © Pete Eeles
12-May-2016

Dingy Skipper, Bluebell Hill, Maidstone, Kent. 6-May-2016

Photo © Testudo Man

Dingy Skipper - imago - Greenham Common - 28-Apr-11 (3)

Photo © Pete Eeles

Dingy-Skipper - Dunstable May 2013 5D37209

Photo © IainLeach

Photo Album (66 photos) ...


Erynnis tages ssp. baynesi

Dingy Skipper - imago - Boston, Clare - 2005 [Adrian Riley]

Photo © Adrian Riley

Dingy Skipper - imago - Carraroe, Galway - 07-Jun-07 [Graham Smith]

Photo © Graham Smith

Dingy Skipper - imago - Boston, Burren, Clare, Ireland - 30-May-13

Photo © Pete Eeles

Dingy Skipper - imago - Boston, Burren, Clare, Ireland - 30-May-13-4

Photo © Pete Eeles

Dingy Skipper - imago - Boston, Burren, Clare, Ireland - 30-May-13-5

Photo © Pete Eeles

Dingy Skipper - imago - Boston, Burren, Clare, Ireland - 30-May-13-6

Photo © Pete Eeles

Photo Album (6 photos) ...


Ovum

Eggs are laid singly at the base of leaflets and are greenish-white when first laid, later changing to orange.

"When egg-laying the female flies very low down while seaching for a lotus plant to deposit upon; usually those more or less concealed among the grass are selected for the purpose, both the bird's-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) and the hairy-leaved kind (L. villosus). When a suitable plant is chosen, the butterfly settles on a terminal shoot and deposits a single egg on one of the leaflets, generally upon the upper surface. Eggs laid June 14th, 1891, hatched June 24th, remaining ten days in the egg state. On May 23rd, 1909, a captured female deposited a few eggs on the upper surface of L. corniculatus leaves; she continued laying until May 31st. Those first laid hatched on June 1st, remaining nine days in the egg state; during the whole time the weather remained very warm, with continual sunshine. The other eggs, although showing signs of hatching, were suddenly checked by the change to cold weather, which set in on June 2nd, and continued for a fortnight, so that no further hatching of the eggs took place until June 9th. On the evening of June 10th an egg started hatching, by the larva eating a small hole in the crown; this became gradually enlarged during the following day until the night, when the larval head was almost wholly visible, but owing to the dull, cold weather the larva made no attempt to quit the egg until a lamp was placed close to the plant on which the eggs were at 10 a.m. on the following day; within half an hour the larva had left the egg ... The egg measures 0.50 mm. high, and the same in width. It is of a spheroid form with flattened base, the micropyle sunken and finely pitted. There are either twelve or thirteen keels (usually thirteen); these commence at the edge of the micropyle; less than half the number run the entire length down the side, the others run only one-fifth over the crown and terminate abruptly. From the base of these others originate, diverge and run to the base of the egg, where they disappear; they are all boldly elevated on the crown, of a glistening pale ochreous colour, and the sides are fluted. The spaces between the keels are concave and very finely ribbed transversely, and the whole surface very finely granulated. When first laid the egg is light citrine-yellow, which gradually deepens in colour; when two days old it is apricot-yellow, and by the sixth day it is deep apricot-orange. On the seventh day the whole colouring becomes changed from the larva showing through the shell, which gives the egg a greenish-ochreous hue with a leaden crown, and the keels and ribs assume a light lemon-yellow, which produces a green effect to the naked eye; it then remains unchanged until hatched." - Frohawk (1924)

1-Dingy Skipper ovum - 4 DMap (1)

Photo © Tony Moore

Dingy Skipper - ovum - Unknown location - Unknown date (2) [REARED] [Reg Fry]

Photo © Reg Fry

Dingy Skipper - ovum - Unknown location - Unknown date (3) [REARED] [Reg Fry]

Photo © Reg Fry

Dingy Skipper - ovum - Greenham Common - 08-Jun-13

Photo © Pete Eeles

Dingy Skipper - ovum - Greenham Common - 09-Jun-13

Photo © Pete Eeles

Dingy Skipper - ovum - Greenham Common - 09-Jun-13-5

Photo © Pete Eeles

Dingy Skipper - ovum - Greenham Common - 09-Jun-13-6

Photo © Pete Eeles

Dingy Skipper - ovum - Greenham Common - 09-Jun-13-7

Photo © Pete Eeles

Dingy Skipper - ovum - Greenham Common - 09-Jun-13-8

Photo © Pete Eeles

Dingy Skipper - ovum - Greenham Common - 26-May-13

Photo © Pete Eeles

Dingy Skipper - ovum - Greenham Common - 26-May-13-2

Photo © Pete Eeles

Dingy Skipper - ovum - Greenham Common - 16-May-14-2

Photo © Pete Eeles
16-May-2014

Dingy Skipper - ovum - Greenham Common - 16-May-14

Photo © Pete Eeles
16-May-2014

Dingy Skipper - ovum - Greenham Common - 17-May-14-3

Photo © Pete Eeles
17-May-2014

Dingy Skipper - ovum - Greenham Common - 17-May-14-4

Photo © Pete Eeles
17-May-2014

Dingy Skipper - ovum - Greenham Common - 17-May-14

Photo © Pete Eeles
17-May-2014

Dingy Skipper - ovum - Greenham Common - 16-May-16

Photo © Pete Eeles
16-May-2016

Dingy Skipper - Ovum - Badbury Rings, Dorset - 12-May-15

Photo © Coopera

Dingy Skipper - Ovum - Badbury Rings, Dorset - 12-May-15

Photo © Coopera

Photo Album (19 photos) ...


Larva

Eggs hatch after about a fortnight and the young larva immediately spins 2 or 3 leaflets together to form a protective tent from which it feeds. These leaflets are gradually eaten and the larva creates a new and larger tent as it grows. In August, after its 4th moult and when fully-grown, the larva builds a more-substantial tent, the hibernaculum, within which it hibernates.

The primary larval foodplant is Bird's-foot Trefoil (Lotus corniculatus). Greater Bird's-foot Trefoil (Lotus pedunculatus) and Horseshoe Vetch (Hippocrepis comosa) are also used.

Dingy Skipper - larva - Thatcham - 20-Jul-13 (1) [REARED]

Photo © Pete Eeles
20-Jul-2013

Photo Album (1 photos) ...


1st Instar

"The larva escapes from the egg by eating away the crown, but it does not eat the empty shell after emerging. Directly after emergence it measures 1.2 mm. long. The head is large, black and granular, and sprinkled with minute white club-shaped simple hairs. On the first segment is a dark brown transverse dorsal band. The body is stoutest in the middle; the segments are sub-divided, which form five transverse wrinkles on the middle segments, the anterior one being the largest. On the dorsal half of the body (above the spiracles) are six longitudinal rows of minute club-shaped white glassy processes, three on each side, one on each of the first three sub-divisions — the first dorsal, second super-spiracular, third sub-dorsal. Along the lateral folds are two white clubbed hairs on each segment, which develop into longer simple hairs on the anal segment; on the claspers are two very minute hairs. All the hairs and processes have shining brown bead-like bases; the spiracles are light brown. The legs and claspers same colour as the body, which is yellow-ochre, minutely covered with fine blackish granulations. On the anal segment is a longitudinal, dorsal, chitinous, shining brown band. The young larva spins two or three of the lotus leaflets together by strands of silk, and lives between them, feeding on the cuticle." - Frohawk (1924)

Dingy Skipper - larva - Thatcham - 11-Jun-13 (15) [REARED]

Photo © Pete Eeles

Dingy Skipper - larva - Thatcham - 11-Jun-13 (18) [REARED]

Photo © Pete Eeles

Dingy Skipper - larva - Thatcham - 11-Jun-13 (16) [REARED]

Photo © Pete Eeles

Dingy Skipper ovum hatching.

Photo © Tony Moore

Dingy Skipper - larva - Thatcham - 11-Jun-13 (19) [REARED]

Photo © Pete Eeles

Dingy Skipper - larva - Thatcham - 11-Jun-13 (13) [REARED]

Photo © Pete Eeles

Dingy Skipper - larva - Thatcham - 11-Jun-13 (4) [REARED]

Photo © Pete Eeles

Dingy Skipper - larva - Thatcham - 11-Jun-13 (20) [REARED]

Photo © Pete Eeles

Dingy Skipper - larva - Thatcham - 11-Jun-13 (1) [REARED]

Photo © Pete Eeles

Dingy Skipper - larva - Thatcham - 11-Jun-13 (11) [REARED]

Photo © Pete Eeles

Dingy Skipper ovum hatching

Photo © Tony Moore

Dingy Skipper - larva - Thatcham - 11-Jun-13 (6) [REARED]

Photo © Pete Eeles

Dingy Skipper - larva - Thatcham - 11-Jun-13 (17) [REARED]

Photo © Pete Eeles

Dingy Skipper - larva - Thatcham - 11-Jun-13 (18) [REARED]-2

Photo © Pete Eeles

Dingy Skipper - larva - Thatcham - 11-Jun-13 (5) [REARED]

Photo © Pete Eeles

Dingy Skipper - larva - Thatcham - 11-Jun-13 (14) [REARED]

Photo © Pete Eeles

Dingy Skipper - larva - Thatcham - 11-Jun-13 (12) [REARED]

Photo © Pete Eeles

Dingy Skipper - larva - Unknown location - Unknown date (7) [REARED] [Reg Fry]

Photo © Reg Fry

Dingy Skipper - larva - Thatcham - 11-Jun-13 (10) [REARED]

Photo © Pete Eeles

Dingy Skipper ovum hatching

Photo © Tony Moore

Photo Album (26 photos) ...


2nd Instar

"The first moult occurred on June 23rd, 1909, being about three weeks in the first stage. After the first moult it measures 4.2 mm. long; the colour is pale ochreous-green, darker green dorsally, caused by the food retained showing through the semi-transparent body. In structure it is very like the previous stage, but more densely covered with white processes and hairs of similar formation. There is, in addition, a dorsal pair of minute brown lenticles on the anterior segmental divisions of each segment. The head is similar to the previous stage, and the band on the first segment is also the same. It remains hidden in the spun-up lotus leaves." - Frohawk (1924)

3rd Instar

"The second moult during the first week of July. After the second moult it measures 4.8 mm. long. The head is large, rough and granular, densely covered with minute, white, curved, serrated hairs resembling tiny plumes. The body has the ground colour pale ochreous-greenish, but is so densely covered with extremely minute black points that it gives the body a pale olive hue. It is also much more densely studded with white trumpet-shaped processes. In this stage the dorsal band on the first segment of the previous stage is absent. It still lives between the spun-up lotus leaves." - Frohawk (1924)

4th Instar

"The third moult: Many moulted during third week of July, some earlier. After the third moult it measures 12.7 mm. long. Colour: Rather dull green, darkest on the dorsal area and yellower over the ventral surface, including the legs and claspers. There is a fine, but rather indistinct medio-dorsal dark green line and a very indistinct yellowish sub-dorsal line. On each lobe of the head are two rust-red spots, some have them more distinct than others. All the processes have a pale yellowish ring round the base. In other respects it is similar to previous stage. They still live concealed between the spun-up leaves." - Frohawk (1924)

Well grown larva recently disturbed from his den.

Photo © Tony Moore
22-Jul-2013

Dingy Skipper - larva - Thatcham - 20-Jul-13 (2) [REARED]

Photo © Pete Eeles
20-Jul-2013

Photo Album (2 photos) ...


5th Instar

"First one moulted the fourth time on July 29th, 1909. After fourth and last moult, fully grown, sixty-five days old, it measures 17.5 mm. long. The head is large in proportion to the very small front segment, of a purplish-black colour, mottled with rust-brown and ochreous. The surface is very roughly granulated, of an irregular cellular pattern, and densely sprinkled with fine whitish hairs. The body is much attenuated at both ends, but mostly so anteriorly; the segments are deeply wrinkled by five sub-divisions, the anterior one on each being the widest. The surface is finely granulated and studded with small white spines with black discal bases, each encircled with a whitish ring. On each segment are four minute lenticles, two on either side, one sub-dorsal and the other super-spiracular; the spiracles are dark brown. The whole colouring is green tinged with ochreous, especially at the segmental divisions; legs ochreous; claspers green; feet black. The anal comb is fan-shaped, and consists of about twenty-four tines, the central ones being the longest. During the second week of August, 1909, most of the larvae were fully grown. After wandering about for a time, some spun several leaflets of lotus together with a rough network of silk, forming a cocoon-like structure, while others spun up in the corners of the gauze covering; they hibernated successfully in these, but did not pupate. Three or four left their cocoons in the early spring and roamed about, and two spun fresh cocoons on the gauze, in which they remained until dying in May; one lived until the first week of June. In 1911 several larvae became full grown by the middle of August, and spun themselves up in the gauze coverings and lotus leaflets exactly as those did in 1909. During the first week of April, 1912, some of the larvae left their hibernacula and roamed about, when all were placed on lotus plants with young shoots growing, mixed with freshly grown grass. On April 18th, 1912, three of the larvae had spun fresh cocoons between the gauze and lower edge of the rim of the flower-pot, apparently preparing for pupation. These subsequently died, as well as others which spun fresh cocoons on the gauze, but those which remained in their hibernacula throughout successfully pupated. The first one pupated on May 7th, 1912. The larval state lasts eleven months, nine being occupied in hibernation. During hibernation it changes from green to an olive-buff colour, but shortly before pupation the first three segments again become a lightish green, the rest of the body remaining olive-buff." - Frohawk (1924)

Dingy Skipper - larva - Unknown location - Unknown date (3) [REARED] [Reg Fry]

Photo © Reg Fry

Dingy Skipper - larva - Unknown location - Unknown date (5) [REARED] [Reg Fry]

Photo © Reg Fry

Dingy Skipper - larva - Thatcham - 05-Aug-13 (1) [REARED]

Photo © Pete Eeles
05-Aug-2013

Dingy Skipper - larva - Thatcham - 19-Aug-13 (9) [REARED]

Photo © Pete Eeles
Final instar
19-Aug-2013

Photo Album (4 photos) ...


Pupa

The larva emerges from hibernation in April and, without further feeding, pupates within its hibernaculum.

"The pupa averages 14 mm. long, of rather slender proportions. Dorsal view: Head rounded, eyes large and prominent, thorax slightly angular, nipped in at the middle, abdomen tapering and terminating in a conical cremaster furnished with a clustered bunch of slender hooks. Lateral view: Head rounded, thorax rather swollen and forming a continuous slightly curved dorsal line along the abdomen to the extremity. Ventrally the thorax is rather concave, then the wings and abdomen form a curved convex outline, the cremaster forming a decurved point. At first, very soon after pupation, the head, thorax and wings are translucent olive-green the wings transparent; the whole of the abdomen is rust-brown or chestnut colour. The wings very gradually turn more opaque, and the head and thorax become tinged with chestnut-red. When four days old the head and thorax are olive-green marbled with ochreous and chestnut-brown; wings ochreous-green and semi-transparent; abdomen chestnut, densely freckled with minute pale ochreous spots; from the centre of each is a tiny pale ochreous bristle with a bulbous base; the thorax and head are also sprinkled with similar bristles. The thoracic spiracle forms a projecting prominent car-like black knob, consisting of a very dense cluster tuft of black bristles rising from a glazed black foundation. The abdominal spiracles are of the same colour as the body and inconspicuous. The surface is finely granular and shining, especially the wings, which have a glazed appearance; the cremaster and hooks are amber colour. On the seventh day the colour is paler, both the green and chestnut being more ochreous; it then remains unchanged for a fortnight, after which time it becomes paler and more opaque. On the twenty-fifth day the eyes are brown; the head, thorax and limbs a dull olive-brown; abdomen olive-tawny; wings iridescent ochreous-greenish. It then turns a dark purplish-brown before emergence. The pupa is attached firmly by the cremastral hooks to the cocoon, which is a strong, coarse, cellular, network, oval-shaped structure spun (in captivity) in the folds of the gauze covering the plant on which the larvae were kept. The network was only spun over the opening of the fold to join it, the remainder of the cocoon being covered with a fine layer of silk, but the whole forming an oval compact cocoon and hibernaculum, spun at the time of entering into hibernation in August. Undoubtedly in a natural state the larvae spin up between leaves and other vegetation close to the surface of the ground. One that pupated May 20th, emerged June 15th, remaining thirty-six days in pupa. Another pupated May 9th, emerged June 10th, remaining in pupa thirty-two days." - Frohawk (1924)

Dingy Skipper - pupa - Thatcham - 23-Apr-14 [REARED]-5

Photo © Pete Eeles
23-Apr-2014

Dingy Skipper - pupa - Thatcham - 23-Apr-14 [REARED]-6

Photo © Pete Eeles
23-Apr-2014

Dingy Skipper - pupa - Thatcham - 23-Apr-14 [REARED]-7

Photo © Pete Eeles
23-Apr-2014

Dingy Skipper - pupa - Thatcham - 23-Apr-14 [REARED]-8

Photo © Pete Eeles
23-Apr-2014

Dingy Skipper - pupa - Thatcham - 23-Apr-14 [REARED]

Photo © Pete Eeles
23-Apr-2014

Photo Album (5 photos) ...


Aberrations

Description to be completed.

Click here to see the aberration descriptions and images for this species.

Similar Species

No similar species found.

Videos


Watch Video
Watch Video
Watch Video

The following links provide additional information on this butterfly.

References

The species description provided here references the following publications:

ReferenceDetails
Aldwell & Smyth (2015) Aldwell, R. & Smyth, F. (2015) The Butterflies of Donegal.
Baynes (1954) Baynes, E.S.A. (1954) The Annual Exhibition - Record of Exhibits. Proceedings of the South London Entomological and Natural History Society.
Burmeister (1878) Burmeister, H., Daireaux, E. and Maupas, E. (1878) Description physique de la République Argentine: d'après des observations personnelles et étrangères par H. Burmeister ; traduit de l'allemant par E. Maupas.
Frohawk (1924) Frohawk, F.W. (1924) The Natural History of British Butterflies.
Harris (1766) Harris, M. (1766) The Aurelian. Edition 1.
Huggins (1956a) Huggins, H.C. (1956) The Burren subspecies of Erynnis tages Linn.. The Entomologist.
Jermyn (1824) Jermyn, L. (1824) The Butterfly Collector's Vade Mecum: or a Synoptical Table of English Butterflies.
Latreille (1809) Latreille, P.A. (1809) Genera crustaceorum et insectorum secundum ordinem naturalem in familias disposita, iconibus exemplisque plurimis explicata.
Linnaeus (1758) Linnaeus, C. (1758) Systema Naturae. Edition 10.
Petiver (1702-1706) Petiver, J. (1702-1706) Gazophylacii naturae et artis decas prima.
Petiver (1717) Petiver, J. (1717) Papilionum Britanniae Icones.
Schrank (1801) Schrank, F. (1801) Fauna boica. Durchgedachte Geschichte der in Baiern einheimschen und zahmen Thiere.