Large Skipper

Ochlodes sylvanus (okk-LOH-deez sil-VAY-nuss)

Large Skipper male - Sand Point, Somerset 1-June-2014 [Damian Pinguey]
Photo © Damian Pinguey
 

Wingspan
Male: 29 - 34mm
Female: 31 - 36mm

Checklist Number
57.009

Family:HesperiidaeLatreille, 1809
Subfamily:HesperiinaeLatreille, 1809
Tribe:  
Genus:OchlodesScudder, 1872
Subgenus:  
Species:sylvanus(Esper, 1779)

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Introduction

This is one of the largest of our "golden" skippers and, like these other skippers, the male has a distinctive sex brand on its forewings containing specialised scent scales. Although this species forms discrete colonies, it is widespread and can be found in England and Wales as far north as Ayrshire in the west and North Northumberland in the east. This species is not found in Ireland or the Isle of Man, and is restricted to Jersey in the Channel Islands.

Taxonomy Notes

Verity (1919) considered the north European individuals, including those from the British Isles, to be a separate race due to the level of melanism exhibited. He named this race septentrionalis.

Ochlodes sylvanus

This species was first defined in Esper (1779) as shown here and as shown in this plate (type locality: Germany).

Large Skipper male, Crymlyn Burrows, Swansea, 10.06.2013

Male
Photo © David M

Male Large Skipper. 16/6/2014. Arlington, East Sussex.

Male Underside
Photo © badgerbob

Large Skipper Female - Chaldon, Surrey 12-June-10

Female
Photo © Vince Massimo

Large Skipper (female), (Ochlodes faunus), West Sussex (19 June 2012)

Female Underside
Photo © Mark Colvin

Photo Album ...


History

The table below shows a chronology of vernacular names attributed to this species. Any qualification of the name (e.g. male, female) is shown in brackets after the name.

YearNameReference
1704Chequer-like Hog (male)Petiver (1702-1706)
1704Chequered Hog (female)Petiver (1702-1706)
1717Streakt Cloudy Hog (male)Petiver (1717)
1717Cloudy Hog (female)Petiver (1717)
1766Large SkipperHarris (1766)
1819Wood SkipperSamouelle (1819)
1832Clouded SkipperRennie (1832)

Conservation Status

This status of this butterfly is considered stable and this species is not currently of conservation concern.

UK BAP StatusOccurrence Change
1976-2014 (%)
Abundance Change
1976-2014 (%)
Occurrence Change
2005-2014 (%)
Abundance Change
2005-2014 (%)
Not Listed
Decrease-12
Decrease-17
Increase+12
Increase+23

The table above shows the occurrence (distribution) and abundance (population) trends, using information from The State of the UK's Butterflies 2015 (Fox, 2015). Any UK BAP status is taken from the UK Biodiversity Action Plan (UK BAP) (2007 review).

Habitat

This species is found in sheltered areas of grassland, where grasses grow tall. Typical sites include meadows, hedgerows, roadside verges, woodland rides and woodland clearings. It can also be found in urban areas, such as parks and churchyards.

Distribution

 

Click here to see the distribution of this species or here to see the distribution of this species together with specific site information overlaid.

Life Cycle

The butterfly is on the wing in June and July, with some individuals being seen in August. There is one generation each year.

The chart(s) above have been correlated with the phenology plot below, taken from the UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme. The blue line gives average counts over the full data set from 1976 to date, and the red line gives the average for the last year.

Imago

Like many other skippers, the male of this species alternates between perching, patrolling, basking and feeding. Patrolling behaviour is normally exhibited late-morning, with perching behaviour the norm in the early morning and afternoon. When perching, the males will defend their territory vigorously, and see off any butterfly that intrudes. Typical perches are sunlit leaves at a height of around a metre from the ground. Both sexes take nectar, and are particularly fond of Bramble and Thistle. Egg-laying is normally performed during the early afternoon. An egg-laying female makes a short flight in between laying one egg and the next on the underside of a blade of grass.

Adults feed primarily on Bird's-foot Trefoil (Lotus corniculatus), Bramble (Rubus fruticosus), Bugle (Ajuga reptans), Dandelion (Taraxacum agg.), Devil's-bit Scabious (Succisa pratensis), Field Scabious (Knautia arvensis), Kidney Vetch (Anthyllis vulneraria), Knapweeds (Centaurea spp.), Privet (Ligustrum vulgare), Ragged Robin (Lychnis flos-cuculi), Thistles (Cirsium spp. and Carduus spp.), Vetches (Vicia spp.) and Yarrow (Achillea millefolium).

Ochlodes sylvanus

Large Skipper Male - Chaldon, Surrey 5-June-10

Photo © Vince Massimo
05-Jun-2010

Large Skipper male - Sand Point, Somerset 1-June-2014 [Damian Pinguey]

Photo © Damian Pinguey
01-Jun-2014

Large Skipper - imago - Pamber Forest - 23-Jun-11 (1)-1

Photo © Pete Eeles

P1050501ad Male, Large Skipper, Oxenbourne Down, 17/06/2012

Photo © Pauline
17-Jun-2012

Large Skipper male - Chaldon, Surrey 25-June-2013

Photo © Vince Massimo
25-Jun-2013

Large Skipper male - Solihull 19.06.2015

Photo © Neil Freeman
19-Jun-2015

Large Skipper - imago - Pamber Forest - 07-Jun-04

Photo © Pete Eeles
07-Jun-2004

Large Skipper - male - Pamber Forest - 11-Jun-15-2

Photo © Pete Eeles
11-Jun-2015

Large Skipper - Nr. Bath - 11-06-2014

Photo © Wurzel

Large Skipper Female - Crawley, Sussex 20-June-05

Photo © Vince Massimo
20-Jun-2005

Large Skipper, Amberley, 15 June 2008

Photo © Neil Hulme
15-Jun-2008

Large Skipper Female - Chaldon, Surrey 12-June-10

Photo © Vince Massimo
12-Jun-2010

Male Large Skipper. 16/6/2014. Arlington, East Sussex.

Photo © badgerbob
16-Jun-2014

Large Skipper Male - Chaldon, Surrey 18-June-10

Photo © Vince Massimo
18-Jun-2010

Large Skipper - imago - Lydlinch Common - 06-Jun-05 (2)

Photo © Pete Eeles
06-Jun-2005

Large Skipper - imago - Bentley Wood - 30-Jun-10 (1)

Photo © Pete Eeles
30-Jun-2010

P1050309ad Male Large Skipper, 13/06/2012

Photo © Pauline
13-Jun-2012

Large Skipper Female - Woldingham, Surrey 23-June-10

Photo © Vince Massimo
23-Jun-2010

Large Skipper Male - Crawley, Sussex 23-June-06

Photo © Vince Massimo
23-Jun-2006

Large Skipper (female), (Ochlodes faunus), West Sussex (19 June 2012)

Photo © Mark Colvin
19-Jun-2012

Photo Album (43 photos) ...


Ovum

Egg-laying sites are normally sheltered spots in sunlight, where the grass grows fairly tall, up to at least 30cm in height. Eggs are white when first laid, gradually becoming orange and then a pearly white just prior to hatching. This stage lasts around 2 weeks.

"On June 13th, 1911, the author captured a pair at Bexley, Kent; next day the female was placed on a growing plant of grass, slender false brome grass (Brachypodium sylvaticum), and during the following few days about one dozen eggs were deposited on the blades, mostly on the under surface and usually in the middle of the blade. She continued depositing until the end of June. The first eggs laid hatched on July 4th, remaining in the egg state about eighteen days. In a wild state the egg is laid singly on the under surface of a grass blade, quite free, fully exposed, and not in the sheath or fold of the blade. When about to deposit the butterfly settles on the upper side of a grass blade; it then curves its abdomen round and below the edge of the blade and deposits a single egg and flies away. The egg is dome-shaped; its greatest diameter just above the base is 0.80 mm. The centre of the crown is very slightly depressed. The surface is covered with an extremely fine reticulated network pattern, chiefly of hexagonal shape; over the crown they are so shallow that they are hardly visible, and nowhere plainly indicated excepting in high light, where the ridges catch the light and cast shadows. The colour when first laid is pearl-white, which very gradually becomes yellower day by clay, but so slightly as to be hardly perceptible, and when a few days old is only tinged with primrose-yellow; in about a week it assumes an orange-yellow and becomes deeper orange until a few days before hatching, when it turns paler and opaque, and finally it changes to opaque pearl-white with a deep leaden crown produced by the large dark head of the larva." - Frohawk (1924)

large skipper egg

Photo © geniculata
24-Jul-2010

Large Skipper - ovum - Pamber Forest - 23-Jun-11 (1)

Photo © Pete Eeles

Large Skipper - ovum - Thatcham - 01-Jul-11 (1) {REARED}

Photo © Pete Eeles

Large Skipper ovum - Duddas Wood, Derrington, Stafford 12/06/14

Photo © Tony Moore
13-Jun-2014

Large Skipper egg, 22/06/2014, Lulworth Cove

Photo © Pauline
22-Jun-2014

Large Skipper egg, 22/06/2014, Lulworth Cove

Photo © Pauline
22-Jun-2014

Large Skipper ovum - Oxfordshire 23rd-July- 2014

Photo © Maximus
23-Jul-2014

Large Skipper Ovum - Somerset - 23/07/14

Photo © William
23-Jul-2014

Large Skipper Ovum (one day before hatching) - Somerset - 29/07/14

Photo © William
29-Jul-2014

Large Skipper Ovum (one day before hatching) - Somerset - 29/07/14

Photo © William
29-Jul-2014

Large Skipper - ovum - Pamber Forest - 12-Jul-15-3

Photo © Pete Eeles
12-Jul-2015

Large Skipper - ovum - Pamber Forest - 12-Jul-15-4

Photo © Pete Eeles
12-Jul-2015

Large Skipper - ovum - Pamber Forest - 12-Jul-15

Photo © Pete Eeles
12-Jul-2015

Large Skipper - ovum - Pamber Forest - 23-Jul-15-2

Photo © Pete Eeles
23-Jul-2015

Large Skipper - ovum - Pamber Forest - 23-Jul-15

Photo © Pete Eeles
23-Jul-2015

Photo Album (15 photos) ...


Larva

The larva eats its eggshell on hatching, before forming a protective tube by spinning together the edges of a leaf blade. In the early instars, the larva feeds on the leaf above the tube. In later instars, several leaves may be spun together when forming a tube and the larva may travel further to seek food. The larva creates new tubes as required, either as a result of the lack of food in the immediate vicinity, or its increasing size. After the 4th moult, the larva forms a stout tube in which to hibernate. In spring, the larvae resume feeding and the larval stage may last a lengthy 330 days in total.

The primary larval foodplant is Cock's-foot (Dactylis glomerata). False Brome (Brachypodium sylvaticum), Purple Moor-grass (Molinia caerulea), Tor-grass (Brachypodium pinnatum) and Wood Small-reed (Calamagrostis epigejoss) are also used.

Large Skipper - larva - Unknown location - Uknown date [Ben Smart]

Photo © Ben Smart

Photo Album (1 photos) ...


1st Instar

"Directly after emergence the larva measures 2.5 mm. long; the head is very large, black and shining, with a fine granular surface and beset with a few minute whitish hairs; eye spots ochreous. On the first segment is a transverse dorsal black collar with a few extremely fine white hairs; on the second and third segments are a pair of sub-dorsal ochreous lenticles, almost touching each other. The body is slender anteriorly and slightly swollen about the middle, the segments deeply wrinkled transversely by seven sub-divisions. There are six rows of small brown bristles with blunt tips and bulbous bases, three on each side above the spiracles and two below on the lateral fold, and minute bristles over the ventral surface, including the legs and claspers. The surface is extremely finely granulated and the colour is pale primrose-yellow. The first meal of the larva consists of the empty egg-shell; it then crawls along the grass blade and commences to construct its dwelling by spinning a great number of strands of silk from one edge of the blade to the other in the same spot; the whole become united into a stout cord; it again repeats the same operation at another spot, and so on until five or more cords are spun across at fairly equal distances apart along the blade; in the process of drying the strands considerably contract, which gradually draws the edges towards each other; after a time other cords are spun which still further unite the edges; in some cases the edges are quite united; this forms a short tubular dwelling; the larva spins a little layer of silk on the surface of the blade to rest upon. After resting for a while it crawls out of the tube for about 12 mm., and starts feeding on the edge of the blade; after each meal it retreats to its abode and rests. As the larva grows day by day it now and again spins more cords until the grass forms a complete tube, from which it emerges only for the purpose of feeding." - Frohawk (1924)

Large Skipper - larva - Thatcham - 01-Jul-11 (1) {REARED}

Photo © Pete Eeles

Large Skipper - larva - Thatcham - 02-Jul-11 (1) {REARED}

Photo © Pete Eeles

Large Skipper Larva (eating eggshell) - Somerset - 29/07/14

Photo © William
30-Jul-2014

Large Skipper Larva (just hatched) - Somerset - 29/07/14

Photo © William
30-Jul-2014

Large Skipper - larva (1st instar) - Pamber Forest - 23-Jul-14-2

Photo © Pete Eeles
23-Jul-2014

Large Skipper - larva (1st instar) - Pamber Forest - 23-Jul-14

Photo © Pete Eeles
23-Jul-2014

Large Skipper Larva - Somerset - 09/08/15

Photo © William
09-Aug-2015

Large Skipper Larva - Somerset - 31/07/15

Photo © William
31-Jul-2015

Large Skipper Larva - Somerset - 02/08/15

Photo © William
02-Aug-2015

Photo Album (9 photos) ...


2nd Instar

"The first moult took place on July 12th, 1911. After the first moult, when twelve days old, it measures 6.3 mm. long. The colour is pale translucent greenish-yellow, darkest internally, caused by the food within the body. The anal segment has a pale olive dorsal disc on which are a few whitish hairs. The rest of the body is densely studded with minute black bristles with black wart-like bases; the head and the dorsal collar on the first segment black. As it grows it increases the length of its dwelling by rolling up the grass blade for 25 mm. or more." - Frohawk (1924)

Large Skipper - larva - Thatcham - 08-Jul-11 (2) {REARED}

Photo © Pete Eeles

Large Skipper - larva - Thatcham - 08-Jul-11 (2) {REARED}-2

Photo © Pete Eeles

Photo Album (2 photos) ...


3rd Instar

"After the second moult, eighteen days old, it measures 8.4 mm. long. It closely resembles the previous stage in all respects excepting the colouring of the body in uniformly deeper green with a fine darker green medio-dorsal line. In this stage it usually feeds on the apical portion of the grass blade which forms its domicile. When crawling it progresses with a curious jerky movement, and if disturbed in its dwelling it often becomes greatly agitated, jerking its anterior half violently about. It casts its excreta a considerable distance from its abode." - Frohawk (1924)

Large Skipper - larva - Pamber Forest - 07-Aug-14-3

Photo © Pete Eeles
07-Aug-2014

Large Skipper - larva - Pamber Forest - 07-Aug-14-4

Photo © Pete Eeles
07-Aug-2014

Large Skipper - larva - Pamber Forest - 07-Aug-14

Photo © Pete Eeles
07-Aug-2014

Large Skipper - larva - Pamber Forest - 10-Aug-14

Photo © Pete Eeles
10-Aug-2014

Photo Album (4 photos) ...


4th Instar

"The third moult occurred on July 28th, 1911. After the third moult, thirty-two days old, it is 11 mm. long. The head is deep chestnut colour edged with blackish and the clypeus also black. The ground colour of the body is glaucous-green with a darker green medio-dorsal line and a whitish lateral line. The surface is densely studded with black warts, each bearing a minute hair, and sprinkled with a few lenticles. On the first segment is a fine dorsal collar. In captivity it readily feeds on various broad-leaved grasses." - Frohawk (1924)

5th Instar

"After fourth moult, thirty-eight days old, it measures 12.7 mm. long. The head is chestnut-brown with light ochreous-buff face and brown clypeus; the surface is strongly granulated. The dorsal collar on the first segment is now absent; in other respects it is very similar to the previous stage. Along the side is a pale sub-dorsal line bordered with a darker line. The larvae enter into hibernation during September after the fourth moult. The hibernaculum consists of its tubular dwelling compactly spun together so as to close the ends, and frequently formed of two or three grass blades spun to the original abode, the whole forming a secluded shelter. Complete hibernation takes place, lasting for six months in an unbroken spell, from the middle of September to the middle of March. Larvae kept out of doors throughout the whole of the hibernating period left their hibernacula during the middle of March. After hibernation the larva feeds for about twelve or fourteen days (but only at intervals of some hours for the first few days), and at the end of March it only measures the same as before hibernation, owing to its greatly decreased size during its winter sleep, when it becomes more dingy in colour, but after feeding assumes a rather brighter hue, but not so bright as before hibernation." - Frohawk (1924)

Large Skipper - larva - Thatcham - 31-Mar-16 [REARED]-2

Photo © Pete Eeles
31-Mar-2016

Large Skipper - larva - Thatcham - 31-Mar-16 [REARED]

Photo © Pete Eeles
31-Mar-2016

Large Skipper - larva - Thatcham - 31-Mar-16-2 [REARED]-2

Photo © Pete Eeles
31-Mar-2016

Large Skipper - larva - Thatcham - 31-Mar-16-2 [REARED]

Photo © Pete Eeles
31-Mar-2016

Large Skipper - larva (hibernaculum) - Thatcham - 16-Mar-16 [REARED]

Photo © Pete Eeles
16-Mar-2016

Large Skipper - larva (hibernaculum) - Thatcham - 31-Mar-16 [REARED]

Photo © Pete Eeles
31-Mar-2016

Photo Album (6 photos) ...


6th Instar

"The fifth moult on March 31st. After the fifth moult and shortly before sixth it measures 2 2 mm. long. It is similar in all respects to the previous stage, the sub-dorsal lines are indistinct and the lateral whitish line of the earlier stages is absent. When about to eject its excreta it crawls backwards, protrudes the anal extremity beyond its dwelling and propels the excrement a considerable distance from its abode. It lives in the tubular shelter and feeds chiefly at night." - Frohawk (1924)

Large Skipper - larva - Thatcham - 03-Apr-16 [REARED [REARED]

Photo © Pete Eeles
03-Apr-2016

Photo Album (1 photos) ...


7th Instar

"The sixth and last moult occurred on May 3rd. After the sixth moult, fully grown, it measures 28 mm. long. The head is large and prominent, somewhat conical (frontal view) and rather flattened in front, of a deep brown-black colour on the sides, clypeus and mouth parts. The face is ochreous-buff; the central portion of the clypeus is pinkish-buff; the upper dividing line of the frontal lobes above the clypeus is brown-black; the surface is granular and beset with whitish bristles. The body is attenuated at each end; the first segment is very small, having a strangulated appearance, the second, third and following segments increasing in size. The anal segment is flattened dorsally, terminating in a flap. The ventral surface of the body is flattened. The ground colour is green dorsally, blending into bluish-green laterally and ventrally. A darker dull green medio-dorsal stripe; an indistinct pale sub-dorsal line and a yellowish spiracular stripe anteriorly bordered on each segment with dull green; the lobed lateral ridge is whitish; the spiracles are cream colour. Anal flap pale ochreous; legs ochreous-green; claspers blue-green. Between the ninth-tenth and tenth-eleventh segments on the ventral surface is a patch of white waxy substance. The entire surface is densely sprinkled with minute shining tubercles, each emitting a finely pointed, simple, straight, minute white bristle, which bristles are developed into longish hairs on the ventral flap. On the eleventh segment close to the large spiracle is a black-ringed lenticle, in the centre of which is a minute white retractile tentacle. The larva lives in a tubular dwelling composed of several grass blades spun together, and feeds on the upper portions, eating them down to its abode. On the under surface and in the centre of the anal flap immediately above the anus is a remarkable comb-like apparatus for the forcible ejectment of the excreta. The larva described was fully grown on May 20th, and pupated May 26th." - Frohawk (1924)

"Certain Lepidopterous larvae, which live in tubular dwellings, are provided with a remarkable comb-like apparatus for the forcible ejectment of their excreta, for the prevention of fouling their habitation. This organ probably reaches its highest development in the Hesperidae. The following description of the anal comb of sylvanus will suffice for those of the other British species, which possess combs of similar construction but varying in the number of the teeth or tines; these are liable to vary in different species. In the different species they number from about eighteen to twenty-four. A. sylvanus: Under and in the centre of the anal lobe, above the anal orifice, is a semi-ovate chitinous structure consisting of eighteen asymmetrical teeth, solidified over the greater portion, then separated and turned slightly outwards at the tips; they gradually decrease in length from the long central ones. The middle tooth is dentated, the others having simple points. The colour is pale ochreous-yellow, the four longest having black tips. Just previous to the ejectment of the excrement the larva crawls backwards along its abode until its extremity is either at or slightly protruded beyond the tube, it then raises its anal segment, elevating the flap or lobe, and evacuates the faeces, which remain adhering to the anus. The comb is then brought down to the rim of the orifice and remains so fixed for a moment or two, as if to obtain a firm pressure with the tips of the tines, then, apparently with considerable power, it is suddenly released; spring-like, the comb flies up with a violent jerk, casting the pellet with remarkable force in an upward direction, when it falls to the ground at a distance of two feet six inches to three feet away." - Frohawk (1924)

Large Skipper - larva - Unknown location - Uknown date (3) [Ben Smart]

Photo © Ben Smart

Ochlodes sylvanus - Larva (Memmingen, S-Germany, May 2013) [Wolfgang Wagner]

Photo © Wolfgang Wagner
www.pyrgus.de

Large Skipper - larva - Thatcham - 04-May-16 [REARED]

Photo © Pete Eeles
04-May-2016

Large Skipper - larva - Thatcham - 12-May-16 [REARED]-2

Photo © Pete Eeles
12-May-2016

Large Skipper - larva - Thatcham - 12-May-16 [REARED]

Photo © Pete Eeles
12-May-2016

Photo Album (5 photos) ...


Pupa

The larva moults once more before pupating within a tent that is constructed from several grass blades. The pupal stage lasts approximately 3 weeks.

"The pupa measures 19 mm. long; it is slender in proportion, the abdomen almost cylindrical and tapering posteriorly; the anal segment with a projecting compressed flap-like process resembling that of the larva, which terminates in an elongated cremastral point with an ample cluster of amber-coloured hooks at the extreme tip; these are directed in various ways and embedded in an entanglement of silk cords. Lateral view: Head rounded, thorax only slightly swollen, almost in a continuous line with the abdomen, which is slightly curved posteriorly, ventral surface forming almost a straight line; tongue case detached and extending to the middle of the anal segment. Dorsal view: Head truncated, with only a slight conical frontal projection; rather widest across the thorax; abdomen slender and tapering posteriorly. Excepting the abdomen, which is dull grey-green, greenest on the posterior portion of each segment, the rest of the pupa is dull leaden-black covered with a leaden-grey bloom; the surface is roughly granular. Above the cream-coloured spiracles on the anterior third of each of the middle segments is a shining glazed oval lenticle set in a black rim, and a black spot behind on the posterior third; these form a longitudinal series. The thoracic spiracle is prominent, consisting of a tuft of ochreous fibrous hairs. Excepting the limbs and wings, the entire surface is densely clothed with ochreous spines which are powdered over with white waxy particles and fragments of silk. The head spines are longest and embedded in the silk of the cocoon, which is composed of a coarse silken oval structure spun within the grass blades, which are spun together. The pupa described, which pupated May 2 6th, produced a male imago on June 15th, remaining twenty days in the pupal state. Another, which pupated June 1st, produced a female on June 22nd." - Frohawk (1924)

Large Skipper - pupa - Unknown location - Uknown date (2) [Ben Smart]

Photo © Ben Smart

Large Skipper - pupa - Unknown location - Uknown date [Ben Smart]

Photo © Ben Smart

Ochlodes sylvanus - Puppe (e.l. Memmingen 2013) [Wolfgang Wagner]

Photo © Wolfgang Wagner
www.pyrgus.de

Large Skipper - pupa (female) - Thatcham - 13-Jun-16 [REARED]

Photo © Pete Eeles
13-Jun-2016

Large Skipper - pupa (male) - Thatcham - 27-May-16 [REARED]

Photo © Pete Eeles
27-May-2016

Photo Album (5 photos) ...


Aberrations

Description to be completed.

Click here to see the aberration descriptions and images for this species.

Similar Species

Essex Skipper

Description to be completed.

Silver-spotted Skipper

Description to be completed.

Small Skipper

Description to be completed.

Videos


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The following links provide additional information on this butterfly.

References

The species description provided here references the following publications:

ReferenceDetails
Esper (1779) Esper, E.J.C. (1779) Die Schmetterlinge in Abbildungen nach der Natur mit Beschreibungen.
Frohawk (1924) Frohawk, F.W. (1924) The Natural History of British Butterflies.
Harris (1766) Harris, M. (1766) The Aurelian. Edition 1.
Latreille (1809) Latreille, P.A. (1809) Genera crustaceorum et insectorum secundum ordinem naturalem in familias disposita, iconibus exemplisque plurimis explicata.
Petiver (1702-1706) Petiver, J. (1702-1706) Gazophylacii naturae et artis decas prima.
Petiver (1717) Petiver, J. (1717) Papilionum Britanniae Icones.
Rennie (1832) Rennie, J. (1832) A conspectus of the butterflies and moths found in Britain, with their English and systematic names, times of appearances, sizes, colours, their caterpillars, and various localities.
Samouelle (1819) Samouelle, G. (1819) The Entomologist's Useful Compendium.
Scudder (1872) Scudder, S.H. (1872) Annual Report of the Trustees of the Peabody Academy of Science.
Verity (1919) Verity, R. (1919) Seasonal Polymorphism and Races of some European Grypocera. Entomologist's Record and Journal of Variation.