Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Boloria euphrosyne (boh-LOR-ee-uh you-froz-SY-nee)

Pearl-bordered-Fritillary- 5D37078 Wyre Forest May 2012
Photo © IainLeach
 

Wingspan
Male: 38 - 46mm
Female: 43 - 47mm

Checklist Number
59.014

Family:NymphalidaeRafinesque, 1815
Subfamily:HeliconiinaeSwainson, 1827
Tribe:ArgynniniSwainson, 1833
Genus:BoloriaMoore, 1900
Subgenus:ClossianaReuss, 1920
Species:euphrosyne(Linnaeus, 1758)

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Introduction

This woodland butterfly gets its name from the series of "pearls" that run along the outside edge of the underside of the hindwing. Males are often seen flying swiftly, low across the breeding site in search of a mate and are extremely difficult to follow, the colouring of the wings providing excellent camouflage against the dead bracken that is often found at these sites. The Pearl-bordered Fritillary may fly with the Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary at certain sites, although the Pearl-bordered Fritillary, which emerges a couple of weeks before the Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary, generally appears much paler in colour as a result.

In England and Wales this butterfly in scattered and isolated colonies south-west of a line running between Denbighshire in the north-west to East Kent in the in south-east. There are also colonies in Westmorland and West Lancashire. It is also widespread in central Scotland, but very local or absent in the north and south of the country. In Ireland it is found in the Burren limestones of Clare and South-east Galway. It is absent from the western and northern Isles of Scotland, the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. This butterfly forms discrete colonies which vary wildly in numbers, from a couple of dozen to over a thousand, this being largely-determined by the availability of suitable habitat. Most colonies contain a few dozen adults.

Boloria euphrosyne

This species was first defined in Linnaeus (1758) as shown here (type locality: Europe and north America).

Pearl-Bordered Fritillary - imago - Bentley Wood - 10-May-06 (0080)

Male
Photo © Pete Eeles

Pearl-bordered-Fritillary Bentley wood 30 April 2011- 03C0609

Male Underside
Photo © IainLeach

Pearl-bordered Fritillary female - Wyre Forest 01.06.2013

Female
Photo © Neil Freeman

Pearl-bordered-Fritillary-Bentley Wood 15 May 2010  I9T7510

Female Underside
Photo © IainLeach

Photo Album ...


History

The table below shows a chronology of vernacular names attributed to this species. Any qualification of the name (e.g. male, female) is shown in brackets after the name.

YearNameReference
1699April FritillaryPetiver (1695-1703)
1717April Fritillary with Few SpotsPetiver (1717)
1766Pearl Border FritillariaHarris (1766)
1824Pearl-bordered FritillaryJermyn (1824)
1832PrinceRennie (1832)
1959Large Pearl-bordered FritillaryHeslop (1959)

Conservation Status

Once considered common and widespread, the Pearl-bordered Fritillary is now one of our most-threatened species. The cessation of coppicing which resulted in the loss of suitable habitat is believed to be one of the major causes of this drastic decline. Conservation efforts have therefore focused on habitat management and there have been a number of success stories. However, this butterfly is still declining and, as such, continues to be a priority species for conservation efforts.

UK BAP StatusOccurrence Change
1976-2014 (%)
Abundance Change
1976-2014 (%)
Occurrence Change
2005-2014 (%)
Abundance Change
2005-2014 (%)
Priority Species
Click here to access the Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) for this species.
Large Decrease-95
Large Decrease-71
Stable+3
Increase+45

The table above shows the occurrence (distribution) and abundance (population) trends, using information from The State of the UK's Butterflies 2015 (Fox, 2015). Any UK BAP status is taken from the UK Biodiversity Action Plan (UK BAP) (2007 review).

Habitat

This butterfly is typically found in deciduous woodland containing open areas, such as woodland clearings, that provide the right conditions, foodplants and nectar sources for this species to thrive. This butterfly can also be found in conifer plantations and limestone pavements in some areas. Sites are generally suitable 2 to 4 years after a woodland clearing has been formed, when the foodplants and nectar sources are optimal for this species. However, these sites can quickly become overgrown and, unless there is suitable habitat nearby, colonies will tend to die out.

Distribution

 

Click here to see the distribution of this species or here to see the distribution of this species together with specific site information overlaid.

Life Cycle

This is the earliest of our fritillaries to emerge. In good years, the butterfly emerges at the end of April in the south - this butterfly once being known as the "April Fritillary" as a result. Most adults emerge at the start of May, but may not appear until the end of May in more northern sites. In exceptional years, there may be a partial second brood at some southern sites, with adults emerging in August.

The chart(s) above have been correlated with the phenology plot below, taken from the UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme. The blue line gives average counts over the full data set from 1976 to date, and the red line gives the average for the last year.

Imago

Males start their day by nectaring on various flowers, such as those of Bugle, Dandelion, Bird's-foot Trefoil and Buttercup, before patrolling low over the breeding sites in search of a mate, investigating any reddish brown object encountered. When a virgin female is found, the female will fly to a suitable platform, sometimes at some height, where the two mate, staying together for 30 to 60 minutes. Egg-laying females are relatively-easy to follow in flight as they flutter slowly and deliberately low down over vegetation, searching out suitable patches of foodplant on which to lay.

Adults feed primarily on Bugle (Ajuga reptans). Bird's-foot Trefoil (Lotus corniculatus), Bluebell (Hyacinthoides non-scriptus), Buttercups (Ranunculus spp.), Dandelion (Taraxacum agg.), Hawkweeds (Hieracium/Hypochoeris), Ragged Robin (Lychnis flos-cuculi), Selfheal (Prunella vulgaris), Thistles (Cirsium spp. and Carduus spp.) and Tormentil (Potentilla erecta) are also used.

Boloria euphrosyne

Pearl-Bordered Fritillary - imago - Bentley Wood - 10-May-06 (0080)

Photo © Pete Eeles
10-May-2006

Pearl-bordered-Fritillary Bentley wood 30 April 2011- 03C0609

Photo © IainLeach

Pearl-bordered Fritillary - Bentley Wood - 9 May 2010 (3)

Photo © Clive
09-May-2010

Pearl-Bordered Fritillary - imago - Bentley Wood - 01-May-09 (2)

Photo © Pete Eeles
01-May-2009

Pearl-bordered-Fritillary-Bentley Wood 15 May 2010  I9T7606

Photo © IainLeach

Pearl Bordered Fritillary Male - Abbots Wood, Sussex 22-April-09

Photo © Vince Massimo
22-Apr-2009

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Photo © Gruditch
03-May-2009

Pearl-bordered-Fritillary- 5D36445 Wyre Forest May 2012

Photo © IainLeach

Pearl-bordered Fritillary male - Rewell Wood, Sussex 17-April-2014

Photo © Neil Hulme
17-Apr-2014

Pearl-bordered Fritillary - Abbot's Wood, Sussex 13-May-2016

Photo © Neil Hulme
13-May-2016

Pearl Bordered Fritillary Male - Abbots Wood, Sussex 22-April-09

Photo © Vince Massimo
22-Apr-2009

Pearl-bordered-Fritillary- 5D35242. N Yorks May 2015

Photo © IainLeach

Pearl-bordered Fritillary pair, Seaton, Cornwall. 19 April 2015.

Photo © essexbuzzard
19-Apr-2015

Pearl-Bordered Fritillary - imago - Bentley Wood - 11-May-04

Photo © Pete Eeles

Pearl-bordered Fritillary - imago - Bentley Wood - 21-May-10 (1)

Photo © Pete Eeles
21-May-2010

Pearl-bordered Fritillary female - Heyshott, Sussex 18-May-2013

Photo © Neil Hulme
18-May-2013

Pearl-Bordered Fritillary - imago - Bentley Wood - 20-May-04 (2)

Photo © Pete Eeles
20-May-2004

Boloria euphrosyne attack by Formica rufa, Dunsford Wood, Devon 10-May-08

Photo © m_galathea
Wood ant attack on a mating pair of freshly emerged Pearl-bordered Fritillary. The male escaped, leaving the female.

Pearl-bordered-Fritillary- 5D34662 Wyre Forest May 2012

Photo © IainLeach

Pearl-bordered Fritillary - Rewell Wood, Sussex 24-April-2012

Photo © Neil Hulme
24-Apr-2012

Photo Album (75 photos) ...


Ovum

Eggs are generally laid singly on the underside of a leaf of the foodplant, but may be laid on nearby vegetation. The egg is yellow when first laid, turning grey prior to the larva emerging. This stage lasts around 2 weeks.

Pearl-Bordered Fritillary - ovum - nr Stockbridge Down - 11-May-07 (1)

Photo © Pete Eeles
11-May-2007

Pearl-bordered Fritillary - ovum - Nr Stockbridge Down - 21-May-10 (1)

Photo © Pete Eeles
21-May-2010

Pearl Bordered Fritillary egg. 27/4/2012. Abbotts Wood, Sussex.

Photo © badgerbob
27-Apr-2012

PBF ovum 16-May-2014

Photo © Tony Moore
Eyarth Rocks. 15.05.14.
16-May-2014

PBF ovum

Photo © Tony Moore
Eyarth Rocks. 15.05.14.
19-May-2014

Pearl-bordered Fritillary ovum - Abbot's Wood, Sussex 9-May-2015

Photo © Neil Hulme
09-May-2015

Pearl-bordered Fritillary - ovum - Bentley Wood - 12-May-15-21

Photo © Pete Eeles
13-May-2015

Pearl-bordered Fritillary - ovum - Bentley Wood - 23-May-15

Photo © Pete Eeles
23-May-2015

Photo Album (8 photos) ...


Larva

Larvae feed by day and generally rest in leaf litter, but can also be found, especially after hibernation, basking on dead bracken. Larvae will eat whole leaves, leaving just the stem intact. They will also feed on only the leaf lobes, at the base of the leaf, leaving characteristic feeding damage that can give away the presence of a nearby larva. After moulting for the third time the larva enters hibernation, generally in a dried leaf, emerging in the spring to complete its growth. There are 4 moults in total.

The primary larval foodplant is Common Dog-violet (Viola riviniana). Heath Dog-violet (Viola canina) and Marsh Violet (Viola palustris) are also used.

Pearl-bordered Fritillary (early instar 2) reared - Caterham, Surrey 28-June-2012

Photo © Vince Massimo
28-Jun-2012

Pearl-Bordered Fritillary - larva - Hampshire - 27-Mar-12-1

Photo © Pete Eeles

003 [Bob Eade]

Photo © Bob Eade

Pearl-bordered Fritillary (2nd instar 1) reared - Caterham, Surrey 17-June-2012

Photo © Vince Massimo
17-Jun-2012

Pearl-Bordered Fritillary - larva - Hampshire - 27-Mar-12-2

Photo © Pete Eeles

Pearl-Bordered Fritillary - larva - Hampshire - 04-Apr-12

Photo © Pete Eeles

Pearl-bordered Fritillary - final instar larva - Thatcham - 12-May-16 [REARED]

Photo © Pete Eeles
12-May-2016

Pearl-bordered Fritillary larva (5th instar) - Rewell Wood, Sussex  27-Mar-2014

Photo © Neil Hulme
27-Mar-2014

Pearl-Bordered Fritillary - larva - Thatcham - 18-Jun-11 (22) {REARED}

Photo © Pete Eeles

Pearl-Bordered Fritillary - larva - Hampshire - 27-Mar-12

Photo © Pete Eeles

Pearl Bordered Fritillary larva. 24/4/2013. Abbotts Wood, Sussex.

Photo © badgerbob
24-Apr-2013

002 [Bob Eade]

Photo © Bob Eade

Pearl-bordered Fritillary (early instar 2) reared - Caterham, Surrey 19-June-2012

Photo © Vince Massimo
19-Jun-2012

Pearl-bordered Fritillary - larva - Stockbridge Down - 17-Jun-15

Photo © Pete Eeles
17-Jun-2015

Pearl-bordered Fritillary (early instar 2) reared - Caterham, Surrey 28-June-2012

Photo © Vince Massimo
28-Jun-2012

Pearl-Bordered Fritillary - larva - Hampshire - 04-Apr-12-2

Photo © Pete Eeles

Pearl-Bordered Fritillary - larva - Hampshire - 27-Mar-12-4

Photo © Pete Eeles

Pearl-Bordered Fritillary - larva - Hampshire - 27-Mar-12-3

Photo © Pete Eeles

Pearl-bordered Fritillary (early instar 2) - reared Caterham, Surrey 9-July-2012

Photo © Vince Massimo
09-Jul-2012

Pearl Bordered Fritillary larva. 24/4/2013. Abbotts Wood. Sussex.

Photo © badgerbob
24-Apr-2013

Photo Album (25 photos) ...


1st Instar

Description to be completed.

2nd Instar

Description to be completed.

3rd Instar

Description to be completed.

4th Instar

Description to be completed.

5th Instar

Description to be completed.

Pupa

The pupa is formed low down in vegetation, suspended head down and attached by the cremaster. This stage lasts around 3 weeks.

Pearl Bordered Fritillary Pupa case. Abbotts Wood, Sussex. 5/5/2010

Photo © badgerbob
05-May-2010

Pearl-Bordered Fritillary - pupa - Hampshire - 04-Apr-12

Photo © Pete Eeles

Pearl-bordered Fritillary - pupa - Hampshire - 22-Apr-12

Photo © Pete Eeles

Pearl-bordered Fritillary - pupa - Thatcham - 16-May-16 [REARED]

Photo © Pete Eeles
16-May-2016

Photo Album (4 photos) ...


Aberrations

Description to be completed.

Click here to see the aberration descriptions and images for this species.

Similar Species

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

The Pearl-bordered Fritillary and Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary are most easily distinguished by their undersides. Both species have a row of 7 white "pearls" running along the edge of the hindwing (hence their vernacular names). However, the remainder of the underside of the hindwing is quite different. The Pearl-bordered Fritillary exhibits 2 very distinct additional "pearls", whereas the Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary has a mozaic of white, oranges and browns and, as such, has the more colourful underside.


Pearl-bordered Fritillary (left) and Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary (right)

It is much more difficult to distinguish Pearl-bordered Fritillary and Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary based on their uppersides. However, there are two general differences. The first is with regard to the row of chevrons at the edge of the forewings. In the Pearl-bordered Fritillary, these chevrons are often "floating" and not attached to the outer margin, whereas these chevrons are attached to the edge of the forewing in the Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary. The second is with regard to the row of spots found next to these chevrons. In the Pearl-bordered Fritillary, each of these spots is positioned midway between neighbouring markings. In the Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary, the dots are not midway, but distinctly closer to the chevrons.


Pearl-bordered Fritillary (left) and Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary (right)

Videos


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References

The species description provided here references the following publications:

ReferenceDetails
Harris (1766) Harris, M. (1766) The Aurelian. Edition 1.
Heslop (1959) Hislop, I.R.P. (1959) A new label list of British macrolepidoptera. Entomologist's Gazette.
Jermyn (1824) Jermyn, L. (1824) The Butterfly Collector's Vade Mecum: or a Synoptical Table of English Butterflies.
Linnaeus (1758) Linnaeus, C. (1758) Systema Naturae. Edition 10.
Moore (1900) Moore, F. (1900) Lepidoptera indica.
Petiver (1695-1703) Petiver, J. (1695-1703) Musei Petiveriani centuria prima-decima, rariora naturae continens.
Petiver (1717) Petiver, J. (1717) Papilionum Britanniae Icones.
Rafinesque (1815) Rafinesque, C.S. (1815) Analyse de la nature ou Tableau de l'univers et des corps organisés.
Rennie (1832) Rennie, J. (1832) A conspectus of the butterflies and moths found in Britain, with their English and systematic names, times of appearances, sizes, colours, their caterpillars, and various localities.
Reuss (1920) Reuss, T. (1920) Die Androconien von Yramea cytheris Drury und die nächststehenden analogen Schuppenbildungen bei Dione Hbn. und Brenthis Hbn. (Lep.). Entomologische Mitteilungen.
Swainson (1827) Swainson, W. (1827) A Sketch of the Natural Affinities of the Lepidoptera Diurna of Latreille. The Philosophical magazine : or Annals of chemistry, mathematics, astronomy, natural history and general science.