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Butterfly taxonomy (classification) The skippers The swallowtails The whites The hairstreaks, coppers and blues. Includes the Duke of Burgundy. The nymphalids, fritillaries and browns. Includes the Monarch.
Orange-tip male - Solihull West Midlands 28.04.2014
Wingspan
40 - 52mm
Photo © nfreem
Orange-tip

Anthocharis cardamines
an-thoh-KAR-iss
kar-da-MY-neez
Number: 58.003
B&F No.: 1553
Family:Pieridae (Duponchel, 1835)
Subfamily:Pierinae (Duponchel, 1835)
Tribe:Anthocharini (Tutt, 1894)
Genus:Anthocharis (Boisduval, 1833)
Subgenus: 
Species:cardamines (Linnaeus, 1758)
Subspecies:britannica (Verity, 1908)
 hibernica (Williams, 1916)
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  Introduction  

The Orange-tip is a true sign of spring, being one of the first species to emerge that has not overwintered as an adult. The male and female of this species are very different in appearance. The more-conspicuous male has orange tips to the forewings, that give this butterfly its name. These orange tips are absent in the female and the female is often mistaken for one of the other whites, especially the Green-veined White or Small White. This butterfly is found throughout England, Wales and Ireland, but is somewhat-local further north and especially in Scotland. In most regions this butterfly does not form discrete colonies and wanders in every direction as it flies along hedgerows and woodland margins looking for a mate, nectar sources or foodplants. More northerly colonies are more compact and also more restricted in their movements.

Anthocharis cardamines ssp. cardamines

The species was first defined in Linnaeus (1758) as shown here (type locality: Sweden). The nominate subspecies has not been recorded in the British Isles.

Anthocharis cardamines ssp. britannica

This subspecies was first defined in Verity (1908) (type locality: England). This subspecies is found throughout the British Isles, with the exception of Ireland and the Isle of Man. Williams (1916) disagrees with a particular aspect of the definition: "The extension of the black apical markings to the anal angle, however, is surely not so common in British specimens as to justify its use as a character differentiating British from continental specimens. I have only two specimens agreeing exactly with the description".

Anthocharis cardamines ssp. britannica (Verity, 1908)

Original (French)

Dans les îles Britanniques cardamines tend à prendre une forme assez particulière (fig.8) qui se distingue par la coupe assez allongée et étroite des antérieures, par le peu d'étendue de la tache aurore, surtout vers l'angle interne, et par l'étendue de la tache noire apicale, qui s'étend jusqu'à l'angle interne et dont le contour est très diffus. Quoiqu'on rencontre des individus semblables à ceux du continent cette race locale mérite le nom de britannica.

Translation

In the British Isles, cardamines tends to take a rather particular form (fig.8), distinguished by the somewhat long and narrow shape of the forewings, by the limited extent of the golden spot, especially towards the anal angle, and by the extent of the black apical spot, which reaches to the anal angle and is ill-defined. Although one finds individuals similar to those on the continent this local race merits the name Britannica.


Orange Tip male - Five Oaks, Sussex 8-April-2014
Male
Photo © Neil Hulme
Orange-tip male -  Five Oaks, Sussex 30-Mar-2014
Male Underside
Photo © Neil Hulme
Orange-tip female - Solihull West Midlands 28.04.2014
Female
Photo © nfreem
Orange-Tip - imago - Aldermaston Gravel Pits - 11-Apr-12
Female Underside
Photo © Pete Eeles

Anthocharis cardamines ssp. hibernica

This subspecies was first defined in Williams (1916). This subspecies was first defined in Williams (1916). This subspecies is common throughout Ireland. Chalmers-Hunt (1970) extends the distribution of this subspecies to the Isle of Man, acknowledging that "The earliest reference to cardamines as Manx is to be found in Newman (1871), most probably on Birchall's authority". This subspecies differs from the subspecies britannica as follows:

1. It is slightly smaller although, according to Dennis (1977), Huggins (pers. comm.) contests this.

2. The black markings on the upperside fringes are more strongly marked.

3. The underside forewing of the male is frequently tinged yellow although this is also, according to Dennis (1977), contested by Huggins (pers. comm.) on the grounds that this feature is no less common in England.

4. The upperside hindwing of the female is strongly tinged yellow. According to Ford (1945a) "This condition is rare but not unknown in Britain" and Dennis (1977) states that "this character is only more or less common to the normal white form".

Anthocharis cardamines ssp. hibernica (Williams, 1916)

Anthocharis cardamines ssp. hibernica (Williams, 1916)

Slightly smaller on the average than the type, the black spots at the ends of the nervures more strongly marked. The ♂ frequently suffused with yellow on the underside of the forewing, the ♀ usually with the hindwing strongly suffused with yellow.

This form appears to occur throughout Ireland. It is figured in South (Butts. Brit. Isles, pl. 17).


Orange-tip ssp. hibernica - male - Craigavon Lakes - 18-Apr-14-8
Male
Photo © Pete Eeles
Orange-tip ssp. hibernica - male - Craigavon Lakes - 18-Apr-14-9
Male Underside
Photo © Pete Eeles
Orange-tip ssp. hibernica - female - Craigavon Lakes - 21-Apr-14-18
Female
Photo © Pete Eeles
Orange-tip ssp. hibernica - female - Craigavon Lakes - 21-Apr-14-10
Female Underside
Photo © Pete Eeles

  Phenology  

There is a single brood each year, with adults flying from the beginning of April, through May and into June. In exceptionally early years a small second brood may appear.

Anthocharis cardamines ssp. britannica


Anthocharis cardamines ssp. hibernica


The chart(s) above have been correlated with the phenology plot below, taken from the UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme. The blue line gives average counts over the full data set from 1976 to date, and the red line gives the average for the last year.


  Habitat  

The species has a wide range of habitats which include country lanes, hedgerows, riverbanks, woodland margins and rides, and damp meadows. The species will also turn up in gardens.

  Larval Foodplants  

The primary larval foodplants are Cuckooflower (Cardamine pratensis) and Garlic Mustard (Alliaria petiolata). Charlock (Sinapis arvensis), Hairy Rock-cress (Arabis hirsuta), Hedge Mustard (Sisymbrium officinale), Large Bitter-cress (Cardamine amara), Turnip (Brassica rapa) and Winter-cress (Barbarea vulgaris) are also used.

  Nectar Sources  

Adults feed primarily on Bluebell (Hyacinthoides non-scriptus), Bramble (Rubus fruticosus), Bugle (Ajuga reptans), Cuckooflower (Cardamine pratensis), Dandelion (Taraxacum agg.), Greater Stitchwort (Stellaria holostea), Hawkweeds (Hieracium/Hypochoeris), Ragged Robin (Lychnis flos-cuculi), Red Campion (Silene dioica) and Vetches (Vicia spp.).

  Imago  

Males are more-often noticed than females, largely due to the highly-visible orange splashes seen as the male butterfly flits along. It is believed that the orange tips of the male are an example of warning colouration, indicating that the butterfly is not particularly palatable to predators – a result of mustard oils that have accumulated in the body from the larval foodplant. The male is also the more-active of the two sexes as it searches out a mate and can be seen flying for long periods without ever stopping to rest or nectar. The female, on the other hand, is usually more concerned with egg-laying and, as a consequence, is often found in the vicinity of foodplants. Her more-secretive behaviour may also explain why she does not exhibit the warning colouration present in the male.

Both sexes have an amazing underside pattern of green blotches formed by a combination of yellow and black scales. When at rest on a flower head of the foodplant this butterfly so well camouflaged that an adult resting just a few feet away can easily be missed, even by an experienced observer.

When searching out suitable plants on which to lay, the female will initially locate a plant by sight before alighting on the plant and tasting it with her feet. If the plant is suitable, a single egg is laid on a flower stalk. Eggs are laid singly for good reason – the larvae are cannibalistic. As a result, it is uncommon to find more than one egg per plant and it is believed that the female is able to detect eggs that have already been laid.

Anthocharis cardamines ssp. britannica


Orange Tip Male and Female, Ballard Down, Dorset 26-May-05
Photo © Vince Massimo
26-May-2005
Orange Tip Female, Crawley, Sussex 9-May-06
Photo © Vince Massimo
09-May-2006
Orange-Tip - imago - Midgham Lakes - 14-Apr-09 (3)
Photo © Pete Eeles
14-Apr-2009
Orange-Tip - imago - Midgham Lakes - 17-Apr-07 (2)
Photo © Pete Eeles
17-Apr-2007
Orange-Tip - imago - Midgham Lakes - 19-Apr-09 (1)
Photo © Pete Eeles
19-Apr-2009
Orange-Tip - imago - Midgham Lakes - 19-Apr-09 (2)
Photo © Pete Eeles
19-Apr-2009
Orange-Tip - imago - Midgham Lakes - 19-Apr-09 (3)
Photo © Pete Eeles
19-Apr-2009
Orange-Tip - imago - Midgham Lakes - 19-Apr-09 (6)
Photo © Pete Eeles
19-Apr-2009
Orange-tip 12 5 10
Photo © Gruditch
11-May-2010
Orange-tip - imago - Midgham Lakes - 18-Apr-10 (1)
Photo © Pete Eeles
18-Apr-2010
Orange-tip - imago - Midgham Lakes - 30-Apr-10 (1)
Photo © Pete Eeles
30-Apr-2010
Orange Tip caught by Crab Spider - Broadbridge Heath, Sussex 16-April-2012
Photo © Susie
Orange Tip Male - Crawley, Sussex 29-April-06
Photo © Vince Massimo
29-Apr-2006
Orange Tip Male - Caterham, Surrey (Reared) 8-April-11
Photo © Vince Massimo
08-Apr-2011
Orange Tip Male - Crawley, Sussex 28-March-11
Photo © Vince Massimo
28-Mar-2011
Orange Tip Male - Crawley, Sussex 28-March-11
Photo © Vince Massimo
28-Mar-2011
Orange Tip Male and Female - Caterham, Surrey (Reared and Released) 15-April-11
Photo © Vince Massimo
15-Apr-2011
Orange Tip Female - Caterham, Surrey (Reared) 15-April-11
Photo © Vince Massimo
15-Apr-2011
Orange Tip on Herb Robert - Coverdale Road Solihull West Midlands 12.05.2012
Photo © nfreem
12-May-2012
Orange-tip - imago - Woolhampton - 15-Apr-11 (1)
Photo © Pete Eeles
Orange-tip - imago - Woolhampton - 15-Apr-11 (4)
Photo © Pete Eeles
Orange Tip male standing out against Blackthorn blossom - Castle Hills, Solihull, West Midlands 13.04.2012
Photo © nfreem
13-Apr-2012
close up of wing scales; combination of black and yellow produce green effect
Photo © jamesweightman
close up of wing scales; combination of black and yellow produce green effect
07-Apr-2012
Orange-tip male - close up - Salisbury, Wiltshire, 07-04-2012
Photo © Wurzel
Orange Tip male on Blackthorn - Castle Hills, Solihull, West Midlands 13.04.2012
Photo © nfreem
13-Apr-2012
Orange Tip pair (male on the left) - Woldingham Woods, Surrey 30-April-2012
Photo © Vince Massimo
30-Apr-2012
Orange Tip Male (freshly hatched) Caterham, Surrey 17-April-12
Photo © Vince Massimo
17-Apr-2012
Orange Tip Male (freshly hatched) Caterham, Surrey 13-April-11
Photo © Vince Massimo
13-Apr-2011
Orange Tip caught by Crab Spider - Broadbridge Heath, Sussex 16-April-2012
Photo © Susie
Orange Tip pair with two other males in close attendance, Aberlady, East Lothian 22/05/2012
Photo © NickMorgan
Orange-Tip - imago - Aldermaston Gravel Pits - 11-Apr-12
Photo © Pete Eeles
Orange-Tip - imago - Aldermaston Gravel Pits - 11-Apr-12-2
Photo © Pete Eeles
Orange-Tip - imago - Aldermaston Gravel Pits - 16-Apr-12
Photo © Pete Eeles
Orange Tip male - Five Oaks, Sussex 3-April-2011
Photo © Neil Hulme
03-Apr-2011
Orange-tip male (reared) - Caterham, Surrey 26-April-2012
Photo © Vince Massimo
26-Apr-2012
Orange Tip male - Caterham, Surrey 8-April-11
Photo © Vince Massimo
08-Apr-2011
Orange Tip female - Caterham, Surrey 16-April-11
Photo © Vince Massimo
16-Apr-2011
Orange Tip female - Crawley, Sussex 24-April-07
Photo © Vince Massimo
24-Apr-2007
Orange Tip female - Five Oaks, Sussex 30-April-2013
Photo © Neil Hulme
30-Apr-2013
Orange Tip male - Solihull West Midlands 10.05.2013
Photo © nfreem
10-May-2013
Orange Tip female - Solihull 19.05.2013
Photo © nfreem
19-May-2013
Orange-tip - imago - Thatcham - 30-Apr-13 (1) [REARED]
Photo © Pete Eeles
Orange-tip - imago - Thatcham - 30-Apr-13 (2) [REARED]
Photo © Pete Eeles
Orange Tip pairing - Five Oaks, Sussex 1-April-2014
Photo © Neil Hulme
01-Apr-2014
Orange Tip female rejecting advances of male - Solihull West Midlands 19.05.2013
Photo © nfreem
19-May-2013
Orange-tip male -  Five Oaks, Sussex 30-Mar-2014
Photo © Neil Hulme
30-Mar-2014
Orange-tip Male - Near Abbot's Wood - East Sussex April 1st - 2014
Photo © Butterflysaurus rex
Orange Tip male - Five Oaks, Sussex 8-April-2014
Photo © Neil Hulme
08-Apr-2014
Orange-tip 5D39575 Notts April 2014
Photo © IainLeach
Orange Tip male - Castle Hills Solihull 19.04.2014
Photo © nfreem
19-Apr-2014
Orange Tip courtship - Arlington, East Sussex 21st April 2014
Photo © Butterflysaurus rex
Orange tip male - Solihull West Midlands 24.04.2014
Photo © nfreem
24-Apr-2014
Orange-tip female - Solihull West Midlands 28.04.2014
Photo © nfreem
28-Apr-2014
Orange-tip male - Solihull West Midlands 28.04.2014
Photo © nfreem
28-Apr-2014
Orange-tip male - Surrey - 4th - May - 2014
Photo © Maximus
04-May-2014
Orange-tip - female - Thatcham - 19-Apr-14 {REARED}-2
Photo © Pete Eeles
19-Apr-2014

Anthocharis cardamines ssp. hibernica


Orange-Tip - Female Upperside 09/05/2007, Mountstewart, Co Down, Northern Ireland
Photo © Dave McCormick
Orange-Tip - Female Underside - 09/05/2007, Mountstewart, Co Down, Northern Ireland
Photo © Dave McCormick
Orange-Tip - ssp hibernica - Ballinasloe, Co. Galway - Apr-08 [Graham Smith]
Photo © Graham Smith
Orange-tip ssp. hibernica - female - Craigavon Lakes - 21-Apr-14-10
Photo © Pete Eeles
21-Apr-2014
Orange-tip ssp. hibernica - female - Craigavon Lakes - 21-Apr-14-13
Photo © Pete Eeles
21-Apr-2014
Orange-tip ssp. hibernica - female - Craigavon Lakes - 21-Apr-14-14
Photo © Pete Eeles
21-Apr-2014
Orange-tip ssp. hibernica - female - Craigavon Lakes - 21-Apr-14-15
Photo © Pete Eeles
21-Apr-2014
Orange-tip ssp. hibernica - female - Craigavon Lakes - 21-Apr-14-16
Photo © Pete Eeles
21-Apr-2014
Orange-tip ssp. hibernica - female - Craigavon Lakes - 21-Apr-14-18
Photo © Pete Eeles
21-Apr-2014
Orange-tip ssp. hibernica - male - Craigavon Lakes - 18-Apr-14-6
Photo © Pete Eeles
18-Apr-2014
Orange-tip ssp. hibernica - male - Craigavon Lakes - 18-Apr-14-7
Photo © Pete Eeles
18-Apr-2014
Orange-tip ssp. hibernica - male - Craigavon Lakes - 18-Apr-14-8
Photo © Pete Eeles
18-Apr-2014
Orange-tip ssp. hibernica - male - Craigavon Lakes - 18-Apr-14-9
Photo © Pete Eeles
18-Apr-2014
Orange-tip ssp. hibernica - male - Craigavon Lakes - 18-Apr-14-10
Photo © Pete Eeles
18-Apr-2014
Orange-tip ssp. hibernica - male - Craigavon Lakes - 19-Apr-14-5
Photo © Pete Eeles
19-Apr-2014
Orange-tip ssp. hibernica - male - Craigavon Lakes - 19-Apr-14-6
Photo © Pete Eeles
19-Apr-2014
Orange-tip ssp. hibernica - male - Craigavon Lakes - 19-Apr-14-7
Photo © Pete Eeles
19-Apr-2014
Orange-tip ssp. hibernica - male - Craigavon Lakes - 19-Apr-14-8
Photo © Pete Eeles
19-Apr-2014

  Aberrations  

Description to be completed.

Unclassified Aberrations


Orange Tip Male (Pale Aberration) - Crawley, Sussex 28-April-08
Photo © Vince Massimo
28-Apr-2008
Orange-Tip - imago - Midgham Lakes - 14-Apr-09 (2)
Photo © Pete Eeles
14-Apr-2009
Orange-Tip - aberration - Chelmer Valley Nature Reserve, Chelmsford, Essex - 12-May-09 (2) [Paul Forsdick]
Photo © Paul Forsdick
Orange-Tip - aberration - Chelmer Valley Nature Reserve, Chelmsford, Essex - 12-May-09 [Paul Forsdick]
Photo © Paul Forsdick
Orange-Tip - aberration - Ickenham - 14-May-09 [Sezar Hikmet]
Photo © Sezar Hikmet
14-May-2009
Orange-tip - imago - Midgham Lakes - 15-Apr-10 (2)
Photo © Pete Eeles
15-Apr-2010
Orange Tip Male (ab macula-punctata) - Crawley, Sussex  23-March-2012
Photo © Vince Massimo
23-Mar-2012
Orange-tip male - aberrant - Salisbury, Wiltshire 07-04-2012
Photo © Wurzel
Much darker and longer black wing tip markings.
Orange Tip (Black ab.) - reared Sussex 16-April-2011 [Dave Harris & Steven Teale]
Photo © Dave Harris & Steven Teale
16-Apr-2011
Orange Tip (Black ab.) - reared Sussex 16-April-2011 [Dave Harris & Steven Teale]
Photo © Dave Harris & Steven Teale
16-Apr-2011

  Ovum  

Eggs are a greenish-white when first laid, but gradually turn orange and are one of the easiest eggs of all species to find, tucked away on a flower stalk of the foodplant.

Eggs are sometimes found on the same plants as those used by the Green-veined White. However, the two species are not in competition since the Green-veined White eats the leaves of the plant, whereas the Orange-tip primarily feeds on the developing seed pods. The larva emerges after 1 or 2 weeks.


Orange-tip egg hatch sequence
Photo © jamesweightman
Egg collected 18/4/2011 laid on Garlic Mustard; Cirencester Gloucestershire. Set up in "studio"; sequence photographed 22-24/4/2011; hatching occurred within 1 hour on 24th. Canon 7D DSLR + Canon 65mm macro x5 + MT-24EX twin flash. Camera mirror-lock used to reduce any vibration.
Orange-Tip - ovum - Thatcham - 02-May-04 (2) [REARED]
Photo © Pete Eeles
02-May-2004
Orange-Tip - ovum - Ufton Nervet - 21-Apr-07 (1)
Photo © Pete Eeles
21-Apr-2007
Orange Tip Ovum - About To Hatch - Somerset - 05/06/13
Photo © William
05-Jun-2013
Orange-Tip - ovum - Forton, Somerset - 14-May-06 [Adrian Dexter]
Photo © Adrian Dexter
Orange-tip - ovum - Midgham Lakes - 01-May-10 (1)
Photo © Pete Eeles
01-May-2010
Orange Tip Ovum (Freshly Laid) - Crawley, Sussex 15-April-09
Photo © Vince Massimo
15-Apr-2009
Orange Tip Ovum - Crawley, Sussex 5-May-09
Photo © Vince Massimo
05-May-2009
Orange Tip Ovum 7-May-2013
Photo © Tony Moore
Orange-Tip - ovum - Woolhampton - 12-Apr-11 (1)
Photo © Pete Eeles
Orange-Tip - ovum - Woolhampton - 12-Apr-11 (3)
Photo © Pete Eeles
Orange tip egg on Garlic Mustard 25-5-12
Photo © ChrisC
Orange-tip - ovum - Craigavon Lakes, Northern Ireland - 29-May-13
Photo © Pete Eeles
Orange-tip - ovum - Craigavon Lakes, Northern Ireland - 29-May-13-2
Photo © Pete Eeles
Orange Tip Ovum - About to Hatch - Somerset - 03/05/14
Photo © William
04-May-2014
Orange-tip ovum - Surrey - 4th - May - 2014
Photo © Maximus
05-May-2014
Orange Tip Ovum - Somerset - 26/05/14
Photo © William
26-May-2014
Orange Tip Ovum - Horton Heath 29 May 2014
Photo © andy brown

  Larva  

The larva eats its eggshell on hatching and, given its cannibalistic tendencies, will also eat any other Orange-tip eggs it encounters. The main source of food is developing seed pods, although the larva will also eat flowers and leaves on occasion. The caterpillar is superbly camouflaged in all instars, especially when resting lengthwise along a developing seed pod.

The larva will travel extensively in search of a suitable pupation site. There are 4 moults in total and the larval stage lasts between 3 and 4 weeks.


Orange-tip 3rd Instar larva. Reared 3/5/2011
Photo © jamesweightman
03-May-2011
reared orange-tip 5th (final) instar body detail 24-5-2011
Photo © jamesweightman
24-May-2011
Orange-Tip - larva - Thatcham - 02-Jun-07 (1)
Photo © Pete Eeles
02-Jun-2007
Orange-Tip - larva - Thatcham - 02-Jun-07 (2)
Photo © Pete Eeles
02-Jun-2007
Orange-Tip - larva - Thatcham - 11-May-04
Photo © Pete Eeles
11-May-2004
Orange-Tip - larva - Thatcham - 20-May-04 [REARED]
Photo © Pete Eeles
19-May-2004
Orange Tip - Early Instar Larva - Somerset - 05/06/13
Photo © William
05-Jun-2013
Orange Tip Larva - preparing to pupate (showing "embryonic wings") - Somerset - 30/06/13
Photo © William
30-Jun-2013
Orange Tip Larva - 1 hour before pupation (Reared) Caterham, Surrey 31-May-11
Photo © Vince Massimo
31-May-2011
orange-tip 4th instar head
Photo © jamesweightman
Detail of head of larva 8/5/2011 (pollen attached?) Canon 7D + twin flash + 65mm macro at 4x
08-May-2011
Orange Tip larva (early instar)  Harmondsworth Moor Middlesex 20th May 2010
Photo © millerd
Orange-tip 1st instar larva 26/4/2011
Photo © jamesweightman
24-Apr-2011
moult of Orange-tip 1st instar larva
Photo © jamesweightman
Moult of Orange-tip 1st instar larva 27/4/2011. Head & body come away in different directions. Whole process took about 10 minutes.
reared orange-tip 4th instar 8/5/2011
Photo © jamesweightman
08-May-2011
Orange-tip - larva - Midgham Lakes - 01-May-10 (1)
Photo © Pete Eeles
01-May-2010
Orange-tip - larva - Thatcham - 31-May-10 (1) {REARED}
Photo © Pete Eeles
31-May-2010
Orange tip larva preparing to pupate (showing "embyronic wings") - Somerset 30-June-2013
Photo © William
30-Jun-2013
Orange Tip Larva (Reared) Caterham, Surrey 31-May-11
Photo © Vince Massimo
31-May-2011
Orange-Tip - larva - Magdalen Hill Down - 21-May-11
Photo © Pete Eeles
Orange-tip larvae. Seaford, 2011.
Photo © badgerbob
12-May-2011
first instar Orange-tip 29-5-12
Photo © ChrisC
29-May-2012
Orange Tip Larva - Solihull West Midlands 17.06.2012
Photo © nfreem
17-Jun-2012
Orange-tip - larva 1st instar - Thatcham - 25-May-13 (1) [REARED]
Photo © Pete Eeles
Orange-tip larva, 1st instar feeding. Seaford, E. Sussex. 20/5/2014.
Photo © badgerbob
20-May-2014
Orange Tip Larva - First Instar - Somerset - 26/05/14
Photo © William
26-May-2014
Horton Heath - 29 May 2014
Photo © andy brown
Orange-tip larva just moulted - Surrey 5-June-2014
Photo © hideandseek
Orange-tip Larva,  just finishing eating its moulted skin - Surrey 5-June-2014
Photo © hideandseek

  Pupa  

The pupa is formed upright on a plant stem or some other vertical surface that provides a suitable overwintering site, attached by a silk girdle and the cremaster. The pupa is green when first formed, with the majority eventually turning light brown to more-closely match its surroundings. This species overwinters in this stage.


Orange Tip Pupa - commencing final moult (Reared) Caterham, Surrey 31-May-11
Photo © Vince Massimo
31-May-2011
Orange Tip Pupa - Freshly Emerged (Reared) Caterham, Surrey 31-May-11
Photo © Vince Massimo
31-May-2011
Orange Tip Pupa - casting off larval skin (Reared) Caterham, Surrey 31-May-11
Photo © Vince Massimo
31-May-2011
Orange Tip Pupa - completing final moult (Reared) Caterham, Surrey 31-May-11
Photo © Vince Massimo
31-May-2011
Female Orange Tip emerging - Caterham, Surrey (Reared) 14-April-11
Photo © Vince Massimo
14-Apr-2011
Female Orange Tip emerging - Caterham, Surrey (Reared) 14-April-11
Photo © Vince Massimo
14-Apr-2011
Orange-tip pupa montage
Photo © jamesweightman
Reared 3 day old pupa viewed from different angles. 22/5/2011
Orange-tip pupa detail: eye
Photo © jamesweightman
Close up of future eye + part of antenna. 22/5/2011
22-May-2011
Orange Tip Pupa (Brown Form) Female - 3 days before hatching - Caterham, Surrey (Reared) 11-April-11
Photo © Vince Massimo
11-Apr-2011
Orange Tip Pupa, Female - 1 hour before hatching - Caterham, Surrey (Reared) 14-April-11
Photo © Vince Massimo
14-Apr-2011
Orange Tip Pupa, Male (1 day before hatching) - Caterham, Surrey (Reared) 12-April-11
Photo © Vince Massimo
12-Apr-2011
Orange Tip Pupa (Brown Form) Female - Caterham, Surrey (Reared) 24-March-11
Photo © Vince Massimo
24-Mar-2011
Orange Tip Pupa - Somerset - 12/07/13
Photo © William
12-Jul-2013
Orange-tip Pupation: casting larval skin
Photo © jamesweightman
Sequence photographed over approx. 1 hour; 19/5/2011. Specimen reared from egg in captivity, collected Cirencester Glos. Canon 7D + 100mm macro + twin flash
Orange-tip Fresh Pupa Translucency
Photo © jamesweightman
Reared pupa freshly emerged and taken shape; front and backlit to show translucency. 19/5/2011
Orange Tip Pupa (Brown Form) - Caterham, Surrey (Reared) 10-August-10
Photo © Vince Massimo
10-Aug-2010
Orange Tip Pupa - Freshly Emerged (Reared) Caterham, Surrey 31-May-11
Photo © Vince Massimo
31-May-2011
Orange-tip pupa "top" & "front"
Photo © jamesweightman
Pupa 2 days old, beginning to lose overall green colour. 21/5/2011.
Orange Tip Pupa (completion of hatching) Caterham, Surrey 25-April-12
Photo © Vince Massimo
25-Apr-2012
Orange Tip Pupa (hatching process) Caterham, Surrey 25-April-12
Photo © Vince Massimo
25-Apr-2012
Orange Tip Pupa (40 days before hatching) Caterham, Surrey 8-March-12
Photo © Vince Massimo
08-Mar-2012
Orange Tip Pupa (14 days before hatching) Caterham, Surrey 3-April-12
Photo © Vince Massimo
03-Apr-2012
Orange Tip Pupa (8 days before hatching) Caterham, Surrey 9-April-12
Photo © Vince Massimo
Orange Tip Pupa (4 days before hatching) Caterham, Surrey 13-April-12
Photo © Vince Massimo
13-Apr-2012
Orange Tip Pupa (2 days before hatching) Caterham, Surrey 15-April-12
Photo © Vince Massimo
15-Apr-2012
Orange Tip Pupa (1 day before hatching) Caterham, Surrey 16-April-12
Photo © Vince Massimo
16-Apr-2012
Orange Tip Pupa (hatching process) Caterham, Surrey 25-April-12
Photo © Vince Massimo
25-Apr-2012
Orange Tip Pupa (hatching process) Caterham, Surrey 25-April-12
Photo © Vince Massimo
25-Apr-2012
Orange Tip Pupa (hatching process) Caterham, Surrey 25-April-12
Photo © Vince Massimo
25-Apr-2012
Orange Tip Pupa (hatching process) Caterham, Surrey 25-April-12
Photo © Vince Massimo
25-Apr-2012
Orange Tip Pupa (hatching process) Caterham, Surrey 25-April-12
Photo © Vince Massimo
25-Apr-2012
Orange Tip Pupa (hatching process) Caterham, Surrey 25-April-12
Photo © Vince Massimo
25-Apr-2012
Orange Tip Pupa (hatching process) Caterham, Surrey 25-April-12
Photo © Vince Massimo
25-Apr-2012
Orange Tip Pupa (half hour before hatching) Caterham, Surrey 25-April-12
Photo © Vince Massimo
25-Apr-2012
Orange-tip - pupa - Thatcham - 28-Apr-13 (1) [REARED]
Photo © Pete Eeles
Orange-tip - pupa - Thatcham - 29-Apr-13 (1) [REARED]
Photo © Pete Eeles
Orange-tip - pupa - Thatcham - 29-Apr-13 (2) [REARED]
Photo © Pete Eeles
Orange-tip - pupa - Thatcham - 29-Apr-13 (3) [REARED]
Photo © Pete Eeles
Orange-tip - pupa - Thatcham - 16-Jun-13 (1) [REARED]
Photo © Pete Eeles
16-Jun-2013
Orange-tip pupa - Caterham, Surrey 17-Sept-2013
Photo © Vince Massimo
17-Sep-2013
Orange-tip pupa - pupated upside down - Surrey - 10 - Feb - 2014
Photo © Maximus
Orange-tip pupa - pupated upside down - Surrey - 10th - Feb - 2014
Photo © Maximus
Orange-tip - pupa - Thatcham - 13-Apr-14 {REARED}
Photo © Pete Eeles
13-Apr-2014

  Similar Species  

Bath White

Description to be completed.

Green-veined White

Description to be completed.

  Videos  

Video © Paul Wetton
Orange Tip Butterfly

  Sites  

Click here to see the distribution of this species overlaid with specific site information. Alternatively, select one of the sites listed below.

Sites
Airhouse Quarry, Allan Water Hillhead SSSI, Allt Mhuic Nature Reserve, Arlington Reservoir, Arnside Knott, Arthur's Seat, Attenborough Nature Reserve, Banstead Downs, Barkbooth Lot, Bedfont Lakes Country Park LNR, Bentley Wood, Bingham Linear Park, Borthwood, Breney Common, Broadstone Local Nature Reserve, Bryncelyn Hall, Cathkin Marsh, Coldingham Bay, Conon Bridge, Crannach Fieldwork Trust, Devil's Ditch, Dundas Castle, Dunhog Moss SSSI, Eyarth Rocks, Fermyn Wood, Fleam Dyke, Gait Barrows, Glenarm, Glenkinnon Burn SSSI, Hartwoodmyres, Higher Hyde, Horsenden Hill, Hounslow Heath LNR, Howardian Local Nature Reserve, Hyde, Jersey Farm, Keswick Rail Line, Kinghorn Loch Path, Latterbarrow, Latton Woods, Laughton Common Wood, Leighton Moss, Lindean Reservoir SSSI, Llanymynech Rocks, Mansmead wood, Mayford Pond, Meanwood Park, Midgham Lakes, Mill Hill, Millenium Arboretum, Moors Valley Country Park, Moss Field, Mynydd Marian, Old Down, Basingstoke, Pamber Forest, Pulborough Brooks (RSPB), Redscar and Tunbrook Woods, Rookery, Roudsea Wood NNR, Smardale Gill, Staines Moor, Stanwick Lakes, Strumpshaw Fen, Sutton Bingham Reservoir, Uffmoor Wood, Viking Field/LesleySears, Whitlaw Mosses NNR, Winsdon Hill

  Conservation Status  

This is one of the few butterflies whose population and distribution are both increasing and, as such, is not a species of conservation concern.

UK BAP StatusDistribution Trend (%)Population Trend (%)
Not Listed
Stable0
Insufficient Data

The table above shows the distribution and population trends of species regularly found in the British Isles. The distribution trend represents a comparison between data for the periods 1995-1999 and 2005-2009. The information provided is taken from the Butterfly Conservation report The State of the UK's Butterflies 2011. The UK BAP status is taken from the UK Biodiversity Action Plan (UK BAP) (2007 review).


  Links  

The following links provide additional information on this butterfly.

  References  

The species description provided here references the following publications:

ReferenceDetails
Chalmers-Hunt (1970) Chalmers-Hunt, J.M. (1970) The Butterflies and Moths of the Isle of Man. Transactions of the Society for British Entomology.
Dennis (1977) Dennis, R.L.H. (1977) The British Butterflies - Their Origin and Establishment.
Ford (1945a) Ford, E.B. (1945) Butterflies.
Linnaeus (1758) Linnaeus, C. (1758) Systema Naturae. Edition 10.
Newman (1871) Newman, E. (1871) An Illustrated Natural History of British Butterflies.
Verity (1908) Verity, R. (1908) Rhopalocera Palaearctica, Iconographie et Description des Papillons diurnes de la région paléarctique. Papilionidae et Pieridae.
Williams (1916) Williams, H.B. (1916) Notes on the life-history and variation of Euchloë cardamines L.. Transactions of City of London Natural History Society.

  Copyright © Peter Eeles 2002-2014
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