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Butterfly taxonomy (classification) The skippers The swallowtails The whites The hairstreaks, coppers and blues. Includes the Duke of Burgundy. The nymphalids, fritillaries and browns. Includes the Monarch.
Comma - Chaldon, Surrey 19-March-11
Wingspan
50 - 64mm
Photo © Vince Massimo
Comma

Polygonia c-album
Number: 59.031
B&F No.: 1598
Family:Nymphalidae (Swainson, 1827)
Subfamily:Nymphalinae (Swainson, 1827)
Tribe:Nymphalini (Swainson, 1827)
Genus:Polygonia (Hübner, 1819)
Subgenus: 
Species:c-album (Linnaeus, 1758)
Subspecies: c-album (Linnaeus, 1758)
Form:c-album (Linnaeus, 1758)
 hutchinsoni (Robson, 1881)
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  Introduction  

Looking like a tatty Small Tortoiseshell, the Comma is now a familiar sight throughout most of England and Wales and is one of the few species that is bucking the trend by considerably expanding its range. The butterfly gets its name from the only white marking on its underside, which resembles a comma. When resting with wings closed this butterfly has excellent camouflage, the jagged outline of the wings giving the appearance of a withered leaf, making the butterfly inconspicuous when resting on a tree trunk or when hibernating.

This butterfly was once widespread over most of England and Wales, and parts of southern Scotland, but by the middle of the 1800s had suffered a severe decline that left it confined to the Welsh border counties, especially West Gloucestershire, East Gloucestershire, Herefordshire and Monmouthshire. It is thought that the decline may have been due to a reduction in Hop farming, a key larval foodplant at the time. Since the 1960s this butterfly has made a spectacular comeback, with a preference for Common Nettle as the larval foodplant, and it is now found throughout England, Wales, the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands and has recently reached Scotland. There have also been a few records from Ireland.

Polygonia c-album ssp. c-album f. c-album

This species was first defined in Linnaeus (1758) as shown here (type locality: Sweden). The nominate form is found throughout its range.


Comma, Pulborough Brooks (5 September 2011)
Male
Photo © Mark Colvin
22.9.2012  108 Chiddingfold Wood,Surrey, male comma
Male Underside
Photo © hideandseek
Comma - River Cole Hall Green Birmingham April 11th 2014
Female
Photo © nfreem
Comma female - Belstead Brook Park, Ipswich 2-Aug-2013
Female Underside
Photo © rodosranger

Polygonia c-album ssp. c-album f. hutchinsoni

This form was first defined in Robson (1881). This form is found throughout its range and represents individuals that go on to produce a second brood, which differ from those individuals that overwinter as follows:

1. Overall appearance much paler.

2. The underside is especially paler, being yellow-brown with darker markings nearer the body, and with a few green spots and other marks at the wing margins.

Polygonia c-album ssp. c-album f. hutchinsoni (Robson, 1881)

The specimens emerging in early Summer are much paler in hue that those appearing later: the ground colour is about the same as the palest portion of the darker specimens, and all the other markings are paler in proportion. On the underside the differences are even more noticeable, the early form being pale yellow-brown, with rather darker markings towards the base, and a few green spots and marks near the hind margins of both wings.

The Summer form is so different, and so constant in its appearance, that it ought to have a distinctive name, and we suggest it be called var. Hutchinsoni, in compliment to that lady whose liberality has enriched so many cabinets with specimens; whose knowledge of the species, as has already been said, is not exceeded by that of any one living, and to whom we are greatly indebted for information mentioned above.


Comma - Crawley, Sussex 28-July-05
Male
Photo © Vince Massimo
Comma. 16/7/2013 Alfriston, East Sussex.
Male Underside
Photo © badgerbob
Comma f. hutchinsoni Stanwell Moor Middlesex 15th July 2012
Female
Photo © millerd
Comma - imago - Nr Siston Brook, Bristol - Unknown date [Mike Dimery]
Female Underside
Photo © Mike Dimery

  Phenology  

The butterfly can be seen at any time of the year, occasionally awakening on warm winter days. The butterfly emerges from hibernation in March, giving rise to the next generation which appear at the end of June and start of July. The majority of the offspring have dark undersides and these go on to hibernate. However, the remainder of the offspring have quite light undersides and brighter uppersides, and are known as the form hutchinsoni.

This form is named after Emma Hutchinson who discovered that this form goes on to breed and produce another generation that then overwinter. As a result, there is another peak emergence in late summer, at the end of August and start of September. The trigger for the development of this form is the changing day length as the larva develops. If day length is increasing (before midsummer's day) as the larva develops, then the majority of adults will be the hutchinsoni form that go on to produce another generation, whereas if day length is decreasing, then the majority of adults will be the regular dark form that enter hibernation. The assumption, therefore, is that a good spring will allow for an earlier emergence and more-rapid larval development, resulting in a high proportion of hutchinsoni adults which can then comfortably fit in another brood.

Polygonia c-album ssp. c-album f. c-album


The chart(s) above have been correlated with the phenology plot below, taken from the UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme. The blue line gives average counts over the full data set from 1976 to date, and the red line gives the average for the last year.


  Habitat  

This is primarily a woodland butterfly, where it can be seen along woodland rides and country lanes. However, especially in late summer, the butterfly is frequently seen in gardens where it feeds in on nectar sources to build up its fat reserves before entering hibernation.

  Larval Foodplants  

The primary larval foodplant is Common Nettle (Urtica dioica). Currants (various) (Ribes spp.), Elms (various) (Ulmus spp.), Hop (Humulus lupulus) and Willows (various) (Salix spp.) are also used.

  Nectar Sources  

Adults feed primarily on Thistles (Cirsium spp. and Carduus spp.). Bramble (Rubus fruticosus), Ivy (Hedera helix), Knapweeds (Centaurea spp.) and Privet (Ligustrum vulgare) are also used.

  Imago  

After emerging from hibernation, both sexes search out nectar sources, such as Sallow flowers or Blackthorn blossom. They also spend a good amount of time basking, favourite surfaces being tree trunks, wood piles, dead bracken and fence posts.

The male butterfly sets up a territory, often on the sunny side of a woodland margin or at the junction of two woodland rides. Here he will sit on a favourite perch awaiting a passing female and will fly up to investigate any passing insect. The male will also make short flights - always returning to the same perch. Even when disturbed, the male will fly off for several metres or so before predictably returning to exactly the same leaf. When egg-laying the female makes short fluttering flights over the foodplant, stopping every few feet, landing on the foodplant and, if suitable, laying a single green egg.

Those adults that hibernate take a good deal of nectar, building up essential fat reserves that will see them through the winter. They are often seen feeding from garden flowers or fruit, such as blackberries or fallen plums. They eventually search out woodland where they find a suitable location in which to hibernate such as a tree trunk, branch, hollow tree or log pile.

Polygonia c-album ssp. c-album f. c-album


Comma - imago - Noar Hill - 28-Jul-06 (0637)
Photo © Pete Eeles
04-Aug-2006
Comma - imago - Pamber Forest - 21-Mar-05 (5)
Photo © Pete Eeles
19-Mar-2005
Comma - Crawley, Sussex 18-March-09
Photo © Vince Massimo
18-Mar-2009
Comma Female - Crawley, Sussex 16-Sept-05
Photo © Vince Massimo
16-Sep-2005
Comma, Rewell Wood, 11 September 2009
Photo © Neil Hulme
11-Sep-2009
Comma - Crawley, Sussex 19-sept-08
Photo © Vince Massimo
19-Sep-2008
Comma female - Belstead Brook Park, Ipswich 2-Aug-2013
Photo © rodosranger
Comma - Chaldon, Surrey 19-March-11
Photo © Vince Massimo
19-Mar-2011
Comma - imago - Woolhampton Gravel Pits - 14-Sep-11 (1)
Photo © Pete Eeles
Comma - imago - Woolhampton Gravel Pits - 14-Sep-11 (2)
Photo © Pete Eeles
Comma, Pulborough Brooks (5 September 2011)
Photo © Mark Colvin
05-Sep-2011
Comma, Pulborough Brooks (5 September 2011)
Photo © Mark Colvin
05-Sep-2011
Comma - Addington, Surrey 15-March-12
Photo © Vince Massimo
15-Mar-2012
Comma - Solihull West Midlands 06.10.2012
Photo © nfreem
06-Oct-2012
Comma - Solihull West Midlands 06.10.2012
Photo © nfreem
06-Oct-2012
Comma - Solihull West Midlands 06.10.2012
Photo © nfreem
06-Oct-2012
22.9.2012  108 Chiddingfold Wood,Surrey, male comma
Photo © hideandseek
22-Sep-2012
Comma pair - Holywells Park, Ipswich 19-Mar-2011
Photo © rodosranger
Comma (freshly hatched) - Caterham, Surrey 4-Oct-2012
Photo © Vince Massimo
04-Oct-2012
Comma (freshly hatched) - Caterham, Surrey 4-Oct-2012
Photo © Vince Massimo
04-Oct-2012
Comma (expanding and drying wings) - Caterham, Surrey 4-Oct-2012
Photo © Vince Massimo
04-Oct-2012
Comma male - Fenny Compton Warwickshire March 23rd 2012.
Photo © Nigel Kiteley
23-Mar-2012
Comma - Knepp Estate, Sussex 7-Sept-2012
Photo © Neil Hulme
07-Sep-2012
Comma - Park Corner Heath, Sussex 12-March-2012
Photo © Neil Hulme
12-Mar-2012
Comma pair - Broadfield Pond, Crawley, Sussex 16-April-2013 [Damian Pinguey]
Photo © Damian Pinguey
16-Apr-2013
20.4.2013 Comma, male, Chiddingfold Wood, Surrey
Photo © hideandseek
20-Apr-2013
Comma - male - Woolhampton Gravel Pits - 06-Oct-13-2
Photo © Pete Eeles
06-Oct-2013
Comma - Castle Hills Solihull 29.03.2013
Photo © nfreem
29-Mar-2014
Comma - River Cole Hall Green Birmingham April 11th 2014
Photo © nfreem
11-Apr-2014
Comma ovipositing - Middle Street, Wilts 8-April-2014
Photo © Wurzel
08-Apr-2014

Polygonia c-album ssp. c-album f. hutchinsoni


Comma - imago - Bentley Wood - 01-Jul-08 (1)
Photo © Pete Eeles
01-Jul-2008
Comma - imago - Bentley Wood - 04-Jul-06 (0445)
Photo © Pete Eeles
04-Jul-2006
Comma - imago - Crabtree Plantation - 03-Jul-06 (0440)
Photo © Pete Eeles
03-Jul-2006
Comma (Pale Form) - Crawley, Sussex 6-July-05
Photo © Vince Massimo
06-Jul-2005
Comma - Crawley, Sussex 1-July-08
Photo © Vince Massimo
01-Jul-2008
Comma - Crawley, Sussex 28-July-05
Photo © Vince Massimo
28-Jul-2005
Comma - imago - Thatcham - 22-Jun-09 (1)
Photo © Pete Eeles
22-Jun-2009
Comma - imago - Monsal Dail - Jul-04 [Mark Nowak]
Photo © Mark Nowak
Comma - imago - Nr Siston Brook, Bristol - Unknown date [Mike Dimery]
Photo © Mike Dimery
comma, female hutchinsoni, shirley holms new forest 09
Photo © geniculata
25-Jun-2009
Comma - imago - Thatcham - 15-Jun-10 (1)
Photo © Pete Eeles
15-Jun-2010
Comma f. hutchinsoni Stanwell Moor Middlesex 15th July 2012
Photo © millerd
15-Jul-2012
Comma f. hutchinsoni Kew Gardens Surrey 14th July 2012
Photo © millerd
14-Jul-2012
Comma f. hutchinsoni Stanwell Moor Middlesex 29th June 2012
Photo © millerd
29-Jun-2012
Comma. 16/7/2013 Alfriston, East Sussex.
Photo © badgerbob
16-Jul-2013
Comma egg-laying on Hop - Caterham, Surrey 27-July-2013
Photo © Vince Massimo
27-Jul-2013

  Aberrations  

Description to be completed.

Click here to see a full list of aberrations for this species.

Unclassified Aberrations


Comma (dark form) - Caterham, Surrey 21-Sept-10
Photo © Vince Massimo
21-Sep-2010
Comma (with bleached hind wing) - Caterham, Surrey 4-Oct-2012
Photo © Vince Massimo
This is likely to be the result of a pathological problem rather than an aberration
04-Oct-2012
Comma ab. iota-album Ryton Country Park Warwickshire 280913
Photo © millerd
28-Sep-2013

ab. neole (Oliver.Entom.1937.70.p.10.)

The ground colour of a rather dark shade of mahogany, much darker than the type form, but not dusky or blackish.


Comma (ab. neole), Brompton Ralph, Somerset, 12th September 2009
Photo © Lee Hurrell
12-Sep-2009

ab. o-album (Tutt.Brit.Butts.1896.p.346.)

= o-album Newnham.Entom.1917.50.p.230.

The white C of the underside replaced by an O.


Comma ab. o-album - Birling Gap, Sussex 22-Sept-10
Photo © Vince Massimo
22-Sep-2010
Comma f. Hutchinsoni ab. o-album  Stanwell Moor Middlesex  25th June 2009
Photo © millerd
25-Jun-2009
Comma ab. O-album. Birling Gap 28/9/2010.
Photo © badgerbob
28-Sep-2010
Comma ab. O album. Littlington, East Sussex. 15/07/12.
Photo © badgerbob
15-Jul-2012
Comma ab. o-album, The Straits, 11/07/2013
Photo © Pauline
11-Jul-2013

ab. obscura (Close.Int.Ent.Z.1916.9.p.115.)

The upperside is darkened, with broad dark marginal bands on both wings without the yellow marginal spots.


Comma (dark form) - Crawley, Sussex 15-Sept-08
Photo © Vince Massimo
Comma ab. obscura, Brompton Ralph, Somerset, 16th September 2009
Photo © Lee Hurrell
16-Sep-2009
Comma ab. obscura, Brompton Ralph, Somerset, 16th September 2009
Photo © Lee Hurrell
16-Sep-2009

ab. reichstettensis (Fettig.)

= reichenstettensis Ruhl.Pal.Grossschmett.1893.p.373.

On the upperside of the forewings only the two basal spots are normal. All the margins are broadly dusted black, especially on the inner margin from whence this black dusting reaches the centre of the discus in the form of a black triangular blotch. Hindwings even more heavily dusted with black so that only a small streak of normal ground colour remains at the base and on the fringes. Gaede in Seitz Macrolep.Suppl.1.p.344 says the correct name for this form is reichstettensis Fettig but gives no reference. This description is taken from that of Ruhl.


Comma (ab. reichstensis)  Fermyn Woods, Northants 14-Jul-07
Photo © Trev Sawyer
Comma - aberration - Oaken Wood - 15-Jul-06 [Dave Wright]
Photo © Dave Wright
ab. reichstensis
Comma - aberration - Warton Crag, Silverdale - 12-Jul-06 (2) [Richard Thomas]
Photo © Richard Thomas
Comma - aberration - Warton Crag, Silverdale - 12-Jul-06 [Richard Thomas]
Photo © Richard Thomas

ab. suffusa (Frohawk.Vars.Brit.Butts.1938.p.103.pl.24.f.4.)

On the upperside of the forewings the two upper black costal spots are united into one oblong blotch. In the centre of the margin there are two tooth-like wedges which reach and envelop the twin discal spots which therefore cannot be seen. Hindwings with the basal half black, leaving a broad marginal band of normal ground colour which is divided by well-blackened veins giving a radiated appearance. The tail, and a small area of the margin on either side of it, black. The basal black area is not so black as the triangular blotch which stretches from the costa almost to the anal angle. The colouring of the figure is peculiar, purplish-brown, but since it is the same specimen as that figured in Frohawk's Bri.Butts.pl.21 which is of normal ground colour, the colour must not be taken into any account.


Comma - aberration - Ensleigh nr Bath - 18-Jul-06 [Graham Smith]
Photo © Graham Smith
ab. suffusa
Comma ab. suffusa, Southwater Woods, 7 July 2007
Photo © Neil Hulme
07-Jul-2007
Comma ab.suffusa. Botany Bay 30/6/2010.
Photo © badgerbob
30-Jun-2010
Comma ab.suffusa. Botany Bay 30/6/2010.
Photo © badgerbob
30-Jun-2010
Comma ab. suffusa Fermyn Woods, Northamptonshire. 1st August 2013
Photo © m1ke

  Ovum  

Eggs are laid singly on the foodplant, toward the edge of a leaf upperside, each female laying up to 275 eggs. They are normally laid on plants at the margins of woods, in woodland glades and rides or next to a hedgerow. Eggs are green when first laid but eventually turn yellow and ultimately grey just before hatching. This stage lasts between 2 and 3 weeks, depending on temperature.


Comma ovum - Crawley, Sussex 28-March-2011
Photo © Vince Massimo
28-Mar-2011
Comma egg on nettle - Black Park, Bucks 9-July-2010
Photo © millerd
Comma Ova (1 day old on hop leaf) - Bristol July 2010
Photo © AdamArmitage
Comma - ovum - New Arlesford - 13-May-12
Photo © Pete Eeles
Comma ova on Hop - Caterham, Surrey 27-July-2013
Photo © Vince Massimo
27-Jul-2013
23.7.2013 Comma egg on female Nettle flower, Surrey 023
Photo © hideandseek
23-Jul-2013
28.7.2013  Comma egg on Nettle leaf, Surrey 006
Photo © hideandseek
28-Jul-2013
30.7.2013 Comma egg after 3 days, Surrey 041
Photo © hideandseek
30-Jul-2013

  Larva  

On emerging, the young larva moves to the underside of a leaf where it feeds. As it matures it feeds on the upperside of the leaf and is quite unmistakable, resembling a bird dropping. This stage lasts around 5 weeks, depending on temperature. Larvae of the first brood moult 4 while those of the second brood moult 3 times.


Comma - First Instar Caterpillar (reared) - Mountstewart, Co Down, Northern Ireland 22-July-2008
Photo © Dave McCormick
Comma - larva - Thatcham - 10-Jun-06 (0247) [REARED]
Photo © Pete Eeles
10-Jun-2006
Comma - larva - Thatcham - 24-Aug-08 (1)
Photo © Pete Eeles
24-Aug-2008
Comma - larva - Thatcham - 24-Aug-08 (2)
Photo © Pete Eeles
24-Aug-2008
Comma - larva - Bath - 17-Aug-05 [Graham Smith]
Photo © Graham Smith
Comma - larva - Unknown location - Unknown date (2) [Ian Surman]
Photo © Ian Surman
Comma larva (first instar) - Caterham, Surrey 13-Aug-2012
Photo © Vince Massimo
13-Aug-2012
Comma larva (first instar) - Caterham, Surrey 13-Aug-2012
Photo © Vince Massimo
13-Aug-2012
Comma larva (second instar) - Caterham, Surrey 16-Aug-2012
Photo © Vince Massimo
16-Aug-2012
Comma larva (third instar) - Caterham, Surrey 21-Aug-2012
Photo © Vince Massimo
21-Aug-2012
Comma larva (third instar) - Caterham, Surrey 21-Aug-2012
Photo © Vince Massimo
21-Aug-2012
Comma larva (early 4th instar) - Caterham, Surrey 26-Aug-2012
Photo © Vince Massimo
26-Aug-2012
Comma larva (early 4th instar) - Caterham, Surrey 26-Aug-2012
Photo © Vince Massimo
26-Aug-2012
Comma larva - Caterham, Surrey 30-Aug-2012
Photo © Vince Massimo
30-Aug-2012
Comma larva (final instar) - Caterham, Surrey 19-Sept-2012
Photo © Vince Massimo
19-Sep-2012
Comma larva (with attendant parasitic wasp) - Shoreham 20.09.12 [Richard Roebuck]
Photo © Richard Roebuck
22-Sep-2012
Comma larva (completing pupation) - Caterham, Surrey 22-Sept-2012
Photo © Vince Massimo
22-Sep-2012
Comma larva pupating - Caterham, Surrey 22-Sept-2012
Photo © Vince Massimo
22-Sep-2012
Comma larva pupating - Caterham, Surrey 22-Sept-2012
Photo © Vince Massimo
22-Sep-2012
Comma larva pupating - Caterham, Surrey 22-Sept-2012
Photo © Vince Massimo
22-Sep-2012
Comma larva (commencing pupation) - Caterham, Surrey 22-Sept-2012
Photo © Vince Massimo
22-Sep-2012
Comma larva (seconds from pupation) - Caterham, Surrey 22-Sept-2012
Photo © Vince Massimo
22-Sep-2012
Comma larva (preparing to pupate) - Caterham, Surrey 22-Sept-2012
Photo © Vince Massimo
20-Sep-2012
Comma larva (second instar) - Caterham, Surrey 30-Aug-2012
Photo © Vince Massimo
30-Aug-2012
Comma larva 2nd instar, Surrey 8-Aug-2013
Photo © hideandseek
07-Aug-2013
Comma larva 2nd instar, Surrey, 10-August 2013
Photo © hideandseek
09-Aug-2013
Comma larva (final instar) - Caterham, Surrey 11-Aug-2013
Photo © Vince Massimo
11-Aug-2013
Comma larva (final instar) - Caterham, Surrey 11-Aug-2013
Photo © Vince Massimo
11-Aug-2013
Comma larva (penultimate instar - pale form) - Caterham, Surrey 19-July-2013
Photo © Vince Massimo
19-Jul-2013
Comma larva final instar (pale form) - Caterham, Surrey 24-July-2013
Photo © Vince Massimo
24-Jul-2013
23.8.13 Comma larva Surrey 008-1 1
Photo © hideandseek
23-Aug-2013
19.8.2013 Comma larva 2 days into 4th instar Surrey 003
Photo © hideandseek
19-Aug-2013
19.8.2013 Comma larva 2 days into 4th instar, Surrey 003-3 1
Photo © hideandseek
19-Aug-2013
19.8.2013 Comma larva 2 days into 4th instar, Surrey 005-1 1
Photo © hideandseek
19-Aug-2013
2.8.2013 Comma larva 1st instar just hatched, Surrey 053-10
Photo © hideandseek
02-Aug-2013
2.8.2013 Comma larva 1st instar just hatched, Surrey 054-1 1
Photo © hideandseek
02-Aug-2013

  Pupa  

The pupa is suspended head down, attached by the cremaster, to either the foodplant, surrounding vegetation or some other suitable platform. The pupa is quite beautiful and the green and brown colouring augmented with a small number of subtle silver spots, together with a jagged outline, give a superb impression of a withered leaf. This stage lasts around 2 weeks.


Comma - pupa - Thatcham - 02-Sep-08 (1)
Photo © Pete Eeles
02-Sep-2008
Comma - pupa - Thatcham - 09-Jun-06 (0233) [REARED]
Photo © Pete Eeles
09-Jun-2006
Comma - pupa - Thatcham - 15-Jun-06 (0301) [REARED]
Photo © Pete Eeles
15-Jun-2006
Comma - pupa - Thatcham - 28-Aug-08 (1)
Photo © Pete Eeles
28-Aug-2008
Comma - pupa - Thatcham - 28-Aug-08 (2)
Photo © Pete Eeles
28-Aug-2008
Comma - pupa - Thatcham - 28-Aug-08 (3)
Photo © Pete Eeles
28-Aug-2008
Comma pupa (dorsal view) - Caterham, Surrey 29-Sept-2012
Photo © Vince Massimo
30-Sep-2012
Comma pupa (lateral view) - Caterham, Surrey 29-Sept-2012
Photo © Vince Massimo
29-Sep-2012
Comma pupa (3 hours old) - Caterham, Surrey 22-Sept-2012
Photo © Vince Massimo
22-Sep-2012
Comma pupa (30 mins old) - Caterham, Surrey 22-Sept-2012
Photo © Vince Massimo
22-Sep-2012
Comma pupa (freshly emerged) - Caterham, Surrey 22-Sept-2012
Photo © Vince Massimo
22-Sep-2012
Comma (hatching) - Caterham, Surrey 4-Oct-2012
Photo © Vince Massimo
04-Oct-2012
Comma (hatching) - Caterham, Surrey 4-Oct-2012
Photo © Vince Massimo
04-Oct-2012
Comma (hatching) - Caterham, Surrey 4-Oct-2012
Photo © Vince Massimo
04-Oct-2012
Comma (hatching) - Caterham, Surrey 4-Oct-2012
Photo © Vince Massimo
04-Oct-2012
Comma pupa (30 mins before hatching) - Caterham, Surrey 4-Oct-2012
Photo © Vince Massimo
04-Oct-2012
Comma pupa (22 hours before hatching) - Caterham, Surrey 3-Oct-2012
Photo © Vince Massimo
03-Oct-2012
Comma pupa - Caterham, Surrey 29-Sept-2012
Photo © Vince Massimo
29-Sep-2012
Comma - pupa - Thatcham - 22-Aug-12
Photo © Pete Eeles
Comma pupa - Southwater, Sussex 30-June-2010
Photo © Neil Hulme
30-Jun-2010
23.8.13 Comma pupa Surrey 078 4
Photo © hideandseek
23-Aug-2013

  Similar Species  

No similar species found.

  Videos  

Video © John Chapple
Comma.
Video © Andrew Fulton
Comma (Polygonia c-album)

  Sites  

Click here to see the distribution of this species overlaid with specific site information. Alternatively, select one of the sites listed below.

Sites
Ashampstead Common, Aston Rowant NNR, Aston Upthorpe Downs, Attenborough Nature Reserve, Backside Common, Banstead Downs, Banstead Woods, Beacon Hill, Bedfont Lakes Country Park LNR, Bentley Wood, Bovey Valley Woodlands, Box Hill, Broughton Down, Bryncelyn Hall, Burham Down, Butser Hill, Buttler's Hangings, Butts Brow, Chobham Common, Cuerden Valley Park, Dalton in Furness, Darlands Banks LNR, Darley, Denbies Hillside, Devil's Ditch, Dundas Castle, Durlston NNR, Ellerburn Bank, Fleam Dyke, Fontmell Down, Forest Farm Meadows, Grangelands, Higher Hyde, Hockley Woods, Hounslow Heath LNR, Howardian Local Nature Reserve, Hyde, Kinghorn Loch Path, Kirkcaldy, Latton Woods, Lower Woods, Lullington Heath, Lydden Down, Malling Down, Mansmead wood, Martin Down, Mayford Pond, Midgham Lakes, Millenium Arboretum, Moss Field, Mount Caburn, Mount Caburn, Nupend Wood, Old Down, Basingstoke, Old Winchester Hill, Orton Longueville, Piddington Wood, Rookery, Seven Sisters Country Park, Smardale Gill, Stockbridge Down, Strumpshaw Fen, Tophill Low, Uffmoor Wood, Watlington Hill, West Williamston Salt Marshes, West Yatton Down, Winsdon Hill

  Conservation Status  

The Comma is one of the few species that is thriving which is believed to be linked to global warming. Its range has been continually expanding and it has recently reached Scotland where it hasn't been seen since around 1870. As such, this is not a species of conservation concern.

UK BAP StatusDistribution TrendPopulation Trend
Not ListedStableIncrease

From The State of Butterflies in Britain and Ireland and the UK Biodiversity Action Plan (UK BAP) (2007 review).


  Links  

The following links provide additional information on this butterfly.

  References  

The species description provided here references the following publications:

ReferenceDetails
Linnaeus (1758) Linnaeus, C.: Systema Naturae. Edn.10. 1758.
Robson (1881) Robson, J.E.: The Young Naturalist. 1881.

  Copyright © Peter Eeles 2002-2014
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