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Butterfly taxonomy (classification) The skippers The swallowtails The whites The hairstreaks, coppers and blues. Includes the Duke of Burgundy. The nymphalids, fritillaries and browns. Includes the Monarch.
Speckled Wood male - Solihull West Midlands 14.04.2014
Wingspan
Male: 46 - 52mm
Female: 48 - 56mm
Photo © nfreem
Speckled Wood

Pararge aegeria
Number: 59.003
B&F No.: 1614
Family:Nymphalidae (Swainson, 1827)
Subfamily:Satyrinae (Boisduval, 1833)
Tribe:Elymniini (Herrich-Schäffer, 1864)
Genus:Pararge (Hübner, 1819)
Subgenus: 
Species:aegeria (Linnaeus, 1758)
Subspecies:tircis (Godart, 1821)
 oblita (Harrison, 1949)
 insula (Howarth, 1971)
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  Introduction  

The Speckled Wood is a common butterfly and familiar to many observers, especially in woodland where, as its name suggests, it is most often found. The appearance of this butterfly changes from north to south, forming a "cline", where individuals in the north are dark brown with white spots, with those in more southerly locations being dark brown with orange spots. This has given rise to a number of subspecies. In addition to the named subspecies, Thompson (1952) identified a race that formed an altitudinal cline in Snowdonia, south-west of the river Conway, giving it the name drumensis. The single-brooded adults flew in June at high altitude above the tree line, and were large with pale prominent markings.

In England this butterfly is found south of a line between Westmorland in the west and South-east Yorkshire in the east, with a few scattered colonies further north. It is also found in the west and north of Scotland, but is absent from the south, the Outer Hebrides, Orkney and Shetland. It is widespread in both Wales and Ireland, but is absent from exposed high ground. This species is expanding its range and it is anticipated that it will eventually fill the gaps in its distribution.

Pararge aegeria ssp. aegeria

The species was first defined in Linnaeus (1758) as shown here (type locality: Southern Europe and Mauritania). The nominate subspecies has not been recorded in the British Isles.

Pararge aegeria ssp. tircis

This subspecies was first defined in Godart (1821) as shown here and as shown in this plate (type locality: Germany). This subspecies occurs through the range of this species, with the exception of Scotland and the Isles of Scilly. The spring brood has larger cream spots than those of the summer brood.

Pararge aegeria ssp. tircis (Godart, 1821)

Original (French)

Le dessus des ailes est d’un brun-obscur, avec des taches d’un jaune-d’ocre. Les ailes supérieures en ont une douzaine, sans compter un oeil noir à prunelle blanche, placé vis-à-vis du sommet. Les ailes inférieures en ont deux, derrière lesquelles il y a une bande pareillement jaune, offrant quatre yeux noirs, dont l'antérieur plus petit et sans prunelle, les autres avec une prunelle blanche.

Le dessous des premières ailes ressemble au dessus; seulement le fond et les taches en sont un peu plus pâles. Le dessous des secondes ailes est d'un gris-verdâtre légèrement chatoyant, avec deux lignes brunes, transverses, ondulées, à la suite desquelles il y a deux taches jaunâtres, puis une rangée courbe de cinq à six points blanchâtres entourés de brun, enfin une teinte violâtre qui couvre presque tout le bord postérieur.

Les antennes sont colorées comme dans les deux espèces précédentes; mais leur massue est en fuseau.

Translation

The upperside of the wings is dark brown, with spots of yellow-ochre. The forewings have a dozen of these, as well as a black eyespot with a white pupil positioned towards the apex. The hindwings have two (yellow ochre spots), behind which there is a band of a similar yellow colour, showing four black eyespots, of which the foremost is smaller and lacks a pupil, the others having a white pupil.

The underside of the forewings resembles the upperside; only the ground colour and the spots are a little paler. The underside of the hindwings is green-grey, slightly lustrous, with two brown, wavy, transverse lines, outside which there are two yellowish spots, then a curved array of five to six whitish points surrounded by brown, finally a violet tint which covers almost all the outer margin.

The antennae are coloured as in the two preceding species [Wall, Large Wall]; but their club is tapered.

Spring Brood


Speckled Wood male - Solihull 17.05.2013
Male
Photo © nfreem
Speckled Wood - Rewell Wood, Sussex 18-April-2011
Male Underside
Photo © Neil Hulme
Speckled Wood (female), West Sussex (22 May 2013)
Female
Photo © Mark Colvin
Speckled Wood (female), West Sussex (22 May 2013)
Female Underside
Photo © Mark Colvin

Summer Brood


Speckled Wood male summer brood - Solihull West Midlands 25.06.2013
Male
Photo © nfreem
Speckled Wood - Shipton Bellinger - 30 Aug 2010
Male Underside
Photo © Clive
Speckled Wood female - Grafton Wood Worcestershire 26.08.2012
Female
Photo © nfreem
Speckled Wood - Stanwell Moor, Middlesex 18-Aug-2009
Female Underside
Photo © millerd

Pararge aegeria ssp. oblita

This subspecies was first defined in Harrison (1949) (type locality: Loch Scresort, Isle of Rhum, Scotland). The initial distribution of this subspecies of Loch Scresort, Rhum, was extended by Howarth (1973) to include Canna and by Dennis (1977) to include Oban and northern Argyll. Thomson (1980) extends the distribution to include western and north-western Scotland and its neighbouring islands: "The subspecies oblita inhabits the western part of Argyllshire, western Inverness-shire and as far north as Inverewe, Ross-shire, including Mull, Ulva, Canna, Rhum, Skye, Jura and possibly other islands of the Inner Hebrides. The newly discovered populations of eastern Ross-shire, eastern Inverness-shire, Nairnshire and Morayshire, and the extinct colonies in Wigtownshire, Ayrshire and Lanarkshire, probably also belong to this race". Like the subspecies tircis, the spring brood has larger cream spots than those of the summer brood. It differs from the subspecies tircis as follows:

1. The overall appearance is much whiter.

2. There is a much great contrast overall, with the dark markings appearing blacker and the pale spots appearing whiter.

According to Howarth (1973) this subspecies has "larger ocelli on the upper side of the hind wings than tircis Butler". Dennis (1977) also says that "the lilac marginal band on the hindwing underside is more purple and more extensive".

Pararge aegeria ssp. oblita (Harrison, 1949)

♂ ♀. Ground colour above and below much whiter than in the form aegerides Stgr., and the blackish markings above and below definitely blacker in the more intensively marked areas and greyer elsewhere.

♂ Holotype – Loch Scresort., Isle of Rhum, August 8th, 1948.

♀ Allotype – same data.

Spring Brood


Male
Male Underside
Speckled Wood - imago - Loch Creran, Inverness [Adrian Riley]
Female
Photo © Adrian Riley
Female Underside

Summer Brood


Male
Male Underside
Female
Female Underside

Pararge aegeria ssp. insula

This subspecies was first defined in Howarth (1971) (type locality: Isles of Scilly, England). This subspecies represents the population found on the Isles of Scilly. Like the subspecies tircis, the spring brood has larger spots than those of the summer brood. It differs from the subspecies tircis as follows:

1. The upperside has better-developed orange markings, especially those surrounding the spots on the hindwing.

2. The underside of the forewing has orange, rather than cream, markings toward the centre.

3. The underside of the hindwing has a darker purplish-grey area at the margin, providing more contrast.

Pararge aegeria ssp. insula (Howarth, 1971)

While on a visit to the Scilly Isles during September, 1970, Mr. Austin Richardson discovered a small and isolated colony of Pararge aegeria (L.) on the isle of St. Mary's; specimens from this colony are here described as a new subspecies.

Compared with ssp. tircis Butler from southern England the ground colour of ssp. insula is a deeper yellowish orange and more nearly resembles that of the nominate subspecies aegeria from southern Europe. The specimens in the type series were all taken in September and therefore are representatives of a late second or possible third brood. However, in general appearance and size of markings, they resemble the first rather than the second generation, form aestivalis Fruhstorfer of ssp. tircis.

The following description is a comparison with the latter:

Male. Upperside. The orange markings are better developed, particularly those surrounding the post-discal series of ocelli on the hindwing and the spot is space 5. Underside. The forewing has the base of space 2 filled with a broad, almost clear orange marking which is immediately above and adjacent to a similar marking in space 1. In aestivalis the latter is broadly darkened basad and the marking above suffused. The hindwing has the purplish grey marginal area slightly darker and in more contrast to the discal markings so that the wing appears slightly more variegated in coloration.

Female. Upperside. Similar to the male but the tawny markings are better developed, particularly the marking at the base of space 2 and that immediately below it, which, in this area of the male is partially obscured by the androconial brand. Underside. Similar to that of the male.

Holotype. ♂, Scilly Isles, St.Mary’s, ix.1970, Austin Richardson, B.M. 1970-712.

Allotype ♀, same data as holotype.

Paratypes: 11 ♂, 1 ♀, same data as holotype.

Spring Brood


Speckled Wood - imago - Trenoweth, St Mary's, Isles of Scilly - 01-Apr-12 [Martin Goodey]
Male
Photo © Martin Goodey
Male Underside
Female
Female Underside

Summer Brood


Speckled Wood (male), St Martin's, Isles of Scilly (31 August 2012)
Male
Photo © Mark Colvin
Speckled Wood (male), St Mary's, Isles of Scilly (29 August 2012)
Male Underside
Photo © Mark Colvin
Speckled Wood (female), Tresco, Isles of Scilly (30 August 2012)
Female
Photo © Mark Colvin
Female Underside

  Phenology  

This species is unique among the butterflies of the British Isles in that it can overwinter in 2 stages, as both a larva and pupa. As a result, there is a mixed emergence with adult butterflies on the wing from April through to September, with a few adults being seen as early as March or as late as October, especially at southern sites. There are 2 or 3 generations, depending on location and weather conditions and adults of later generations are generally darker than those emerging earlier in the year.

Pararge aegeria ssp. tircis


Pararge aegeria ssp. oblita


Pararge aegeria ssp. insula


The chart(s) above have been correlated with the phenology plot below, taken from the UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme. The blue line gives average counts over the full data set from 1976 to date, and the red line gives the average for the last year.


  Habitat  

As its names suggests, this butterfly is primarily found in woodland, but can be found anywhere there is sufficient scrub to provide the shaded conditions that this butterfly favours which includes gardens and hedgerows.

  Larval Foodplants  

The primary larval foodplants are Cock's-foot (Dactylis glomerata), Common Couch (Elytrigia repens), False Brome (Brachypodium sylvaticum) and Yorkshire-fog (Holcus lanatus).

  Nectar Sources  

Adults feed primarily on Honeydew / Sap (). Bramble (Rubus fruticosus), Cuckooflower (Cardamine pratensis), Dandelion (Taraxacum agg.), Fleabane (Pulicaria dysenterica), Privet (Ligustrum vulgare) and Ragwort (Senecio jacobaea) are also used.

  Imago  

This butterfly is often seen in more-sheltered conditions than other species and is often the only species seen in dappled shade, or in overcast conditions.

The male is territorial and will inhabit a particular clearing or hedgerow, where he will rest on a prominent sunlit perch waiting for a passing female. Other males are soon seen off before the defending male returns to a favourite perch. If no suitable territory can be found, or when there is a large number of males, the male will patrol in search of a mate instead. When a male encounters a receptive female, which has a more laboured flight than the male, she will fall to the ground or a nearby leaf where, after a brief courtship, the pair mate.

Both sexes feed from honeydew, but also take nectar from a variety of plants when honeydew is scarce, such as Ragwort.

Pararge aegeria ssp. tircis

Spring Brood


Speckled Wood Female? - Crawley, Sussex 19-April-07
Photo © Vince Massimo
19-Apr-2007
Speckled Wood Male - Crawley, Sussex 8-June-05
Photo © Vince Massimo
08-Jun-2005
Speckled Wood Male (Pale Form) - Crawley, Sussex 27-April-07
Photo © Vince Massimo
27-Apr-2007
Speckled Wood - imago - Midgham Lakes - 14-Apr-07 (2)
Photo © Pete Eeles
14-Apr-2007
Speckled Wood - imago - Midgham Lakes - 14-Apr-09 (1)
Photo © Pete Eeles
14-Apr-2009
Speckled Wood
Photo © Charlotte Brett
Speckled Wood Female (Newly Hatched) - Caterham, Surrey 18-April-10
Photo © Vince Massimo
18-Apr-2010
Speckled Wood Female (Newly Hatched) - Caterham, Surrey 18-April-10
Photo © Vince Massimo
18-Apr-2010
Speckled Wood female - Solihull West Midlands 07.05.2013
Photo © nfreem
07-May-2013
Speckled Wood - imago - Woolhampton - 08-Apr-11 (1)
Photo © Pete Eeles
Speckled Wood, male, Greenford, Middlesex, 03/04/2011
Photo © Lee Hurrell
Speckled Wood Male - Kenley, Surrey 26-March-2012
Photo © Vince Massimo
26-Mar-2012
Speckled Wood newly emerged. Seaford.6/4/2012.
Photo © badgerbob
06-Apr-2012
Speckled Wood - Woodhouse Copse, Isle of Wight 29-March-2012
Photo © hideandseek
29-Mar-2012
Speckled Wood Pair - John Muir Country Park, East Lothian 16/05/12
Photo © NickMorgan
Speckled Wood - imago - Woolhampton Gravel Pits - 21-Apr-12
Photo © Pete Eeles
Speckled Wood - Rewell Wood, Sussex 18-April-2011
Photo © Neil Hulme
17-Apr-2011
Speckled Wood male - Solihull 19.05.2013
Photo © nfreem
19-May-2013
Speckled Wood male - Solihull 17.05.2013
Photo © nfreem
17-May-2013
Speckled Wood male - Solihull 17.05.2013
Photo © nfreem
17-May-2013
Speckled Wood (female), West Sussex (22 May 2013)
Photo © Mark Colvin
Speckled Wood (female), West Sussex (22 May 2013)
Photo © Mark Colvin
Speckled-Wood- 5D33724 Scunthorpe, Lincs 20 June 2013
Photo © IainLeach
Speckled-Wood- 5D33729 Scunthorpe, Lincs 20 June 2013
Photo © IainLeach
Speckled-Wood- 5D33989 Scunthorpe, Lincs 20 June 2013
Photo © IainLeach
Speckled Wood - Somerset - 08/06/13
Photo © William
08-Jun-2013
Speckled Wood male - Solihull West Midlands 14.04.2014
Photo © nfreem
14-Apr-2014

Summer Brood


Speckled Wood Female - Crawley, Sussex 17-Aug-06
Photo © Vince Massimo
17-Aug-2006
Speckled Wood Male (Dark Form) - Crawley, Sussex 13-June-05
Photo © Vince Massimo
13-Jun-2005
Speckled Wood - imago - Thatcham - 15-Jul-09 (1)
Photo © Pete Eeles
15-Jul-2009
Speckled Wood - Shipton Bellinger - 15 Aug 2010
Photo © Clive
15-Aug-2010
Speckled Wood - Shipton Bellinger - 30 Aug 2010
Photo © Clive
30-Aug-2010
Speckled Wood - Stanwell Moor, Middlesex 18-Aug-2009
Photo © millerd
18-Aug-2009
Speckled Wood Female - Addington, Surrey 15-June-10
Photo © Vince Massimo
15-Jun-2010
Speckled Wood Male (Dark Form) - Addington, Surrey 15-June-10
Photo © Vince Massimo
15-Jun-2010
Speckled Wood pair, near Foulden, Berwickshire, Scotland. 9th August 2011.
Photo © IAC
Scotland
09-Aug-2011
Speckled Wood male - Solihull West Midlands 10.06.2012
Photo © nfreem
10-Jun-2012
Speckled Wood (m&f) 3.9.09 East Sussex.Downland boy
Photo © downland boy
Speckled Wood  Bookham Common Surrey  26th August 2012
Photo © millerd
26-Aug-2012
Speckled Wood female - Grafton Wood Worcestershire 26.08.2012
Photo © nfreem
26-Aug-2012
Speckled Wood male - Worthing, Sussex 14-Aug-2012
Photo © Neil Hulme
14-Aug-2012
Speckled Wood male summer brood - Solihull West Midlands 26.06.2013
Photo © nfreem
26-Jun-2013
Speckled Wood male summer brood - Solihull West Midlands 25.06.2013
Photo © nfreem
25-Jun-2013
25.6.13  Speckled Wood, female, Chiddingfold Wood, Surrey 006
Photo © hideandseek
25-Jun-2013
Speckled Wood - Shipton Bellinger - 13-08-2013
Photo © Wurzel
13-Aug-2013
Speckled Wood female - Castle Hills Solihull 22.09.2013
Photo © nfreem
22-Sep-2013
Speckled Wood male, Crymlyn Burrows, Swansea, 19,06.2013
Photo © David M
19-Jun-2013

Pararge aegeria ssp. oblita

Spring Brood


Speckled Wood - imago - Loch Creran, Inverness [Adrian Riley]
Photo © Adrian Riley

Summer Brood

Pararge aegeria ssp. insula

Spring Brood


Speckled Wood - imago - St Marys, Isles of Scilly - Unknown date [Adrian Riley]
Photo © Adrian Riley
Speckled Wood - imago - Trenoweth, St Mary's, Isles of Scilly - 01-Apr-12 [Martin Goodey]
Photo © Martin Goodey

Summer Brood


Speckled Wood - imago - St. Martins, Scilly - 08-Jul-05 [Simon Green]
Photo © Simon Green
Speckled Wood (male), St Mary's, Isles of Scilly (29 August 2012)
Photo © Mark Colvin
29-Aug-2012
Speckled Wood (male), St Mary's, Isles of Scilly (29 August 2012)
Photo © Mark Colvin
29-Aug-2012
Speckled Wood (male), Tresco, Isles of Scilly (30 August 2012)
Photo © Mark Colvin
30-Aug-2012
Speckled Wood (male), St Martin's, Isles of Scilly (31 August 2012)
Photo © Mark Colvin
31-Aug-2012
Speckled Wood (female), St Mary's, Isles of Scilly (31 August 2012)
Photo © Mark Colvin
31-Aug-2012

  Aberrations  

Description to be completed.

Click here to see a full list of aberrations for this species.

ab. kulczynskii (Pruffer.Rozpr.Wydz.Polsk.Ak.Umiez(1920).1921.60.Ser.B.p.124.pl.2.f.8.)

Male. On the forewings the outer costal spot, the spot immediately below it, and a third one touching the eye-spot on its lower side, remain normal. The other spots are visible but so much obscured that they are hardly lighter than the dark ground colour. Hindwings with the costal and postdiscal spots present but the ocellated marginal band strongly reduced. Transitional to saturatior Crom. but differs chiefly on the hindwings which still show the marginal band of ocellated spots, these are absent in both ab.saturatior and fusca Hackett.


Speckled Wood Male - Barton Broad, Norfolk 7-Sept-05
Photo © Vince Massimo
07-Sep-2005

ab. saturatior (Crombrugghe.Rev.Mens.Soc.Ent.Nam.1911.ll.p.45.)

= fusca Hackett.Entom.1958.91.p.114.

Only four yellow spots remain on the forewing. The two lowest marginal ones near the tornus are absent and the two, one above and one below the apical eye, are very small. The yellow band on the hindwing is completely obliterated. Hackett's fusca is so similar that it would be difficult to draw a line. Fore and hindwings blackish-brown except for two white dots, one above and one below the apical eye, and three other very faint traces of the usual "speckles". Two of these are on the forewings, one on the edge of the discal cell, the other in the central area just above the median vein, the third on the hindwings below the costal margin. Unless the types are seen it would be difficult to know by these descriptions if they are different.


Speckled Wood - aberration - Wiltshire - 2007 [Terry Dabner]
Photo © Terry Dabner
Speckled Wood - imago - Quarrylands, nr Taunton, Somerset - 15-Sep-08 [Mark Fletcher]
Photo © Mark Fletcher

  Ovum  

The spherical eggs are very light green in colour are laid singly, sometimes in pairs, on the underside of a leaf of the foodplant. It is believed that temperature is a major factor when a female chooses a plant on which to lay. In spring and autumn eggs are laid on plants in more-open positions than those laid in the summer, when more-shaded plants are used. Eggs hatch after 1 to 3 weeks, depending on temperature.


Speckled Wood (pair of ovum) - Crawley, Sussex 24-April-09
Photo © Vince Massimo
See viewtopic.php?f=21&t=4078 for further details.
24-Apr-2009
Speckled Wood Ovum - Somerset - 29/06/13
Photo © William
29-Jun-2013
Speckled Wood - ovum - Pamber Forest - 16-Jun-11 (1)
Photo © Pete Eeles
Specked Wood ovum 02.07.13
Photo © Tony Moore
A 99 shot focus stack.
01-Jul-2013
Speckled Wood Egg, Cirencester Park, Glos 6/10/13
Photo © jamesweightman
Speckled Wood egg hatch sequence 10/10/2013
Photo © jamesweightman

  Larva  

The young larva sits on the underside of the leaf feeding, both day and night, from the leaf edge toward the midrib. Larger larvae will move from plant to plant to feed and, as winter approaches, will rest at the base of the plant. Depending on the temperature and amount of daylight, some larvae will reach pupation, this species being the only butterfly in the British Isles that passes the winter in 2 different stages - as larva and pupa, although it is believed that only 3rd instar larvae are able to successfully overwinter. This stage can be passed in as little as 25 days when the temperature is high. There are 3 or 4 moults in total.


Speckled Wood - larva - Thatcham - 27-Oct-05 (3) [REARED]
Photo © Pete Eeles
27-Oct-2005
Speckled Wood - larva - Thatcham - 27-Oct-05 [REARED]
Photo © Pete Eeles
27-Oct-2005
Speckled Wood 2nd instar larva 16/10/2013
Photo © jamesweightman
14-Oct-2013

  Pupa  

The pupa is formed head down from a grass stem or nearby leaf litter, attached by the cremaster. This stage can be as short as 10 days for those pupae that go on to produce adults in the same year.


Speckled Wood - pupa - Thatcham - 26-Apr-06 (2) [REARED]
Photo © Pete Eeles
26-Apr-2006
Speckled Wood - pupa - Thatcham - 27-Oct-05 (2) [REARED]
Photo © Pete Eeles
27-Oct-2005
Speckled Wood - pupa - Thatcham - 27-Oct-05 [REARED]
Photo © Pete Eeles
27-Oct-2005
Speckled Wood Pupa - Caterham, Surrey 1-Nov-09
Photo © Vince Massimo
Found inside a shed. See viewtopic.php?f=21&t=4078 for further details.
01-Nov-2009
Speckled Wood Pupa (1 Day Before Hatching) - Caterham, Surrey 17-April-10
Photo © Vince Massimo
17-Apr-2010

  Similar Species  

No similar species found.

  Videos  

Video © John Chapple
Specled Wood.

  Sites  

Click here to see the distribution of this species overlaid with specific site information. Alternatively, select one of the sites listed below.

Sites
Arnside Knott, Aspal Close, Badbury Rings, Blackfold, Borthwood, Bovey Valley Woodlands, Bryncelyn Hall, Chambers Farm Wood, Coombe Heath, Cuerden Valley Park, Darley, Devil's Ditch, Ellerburn Bank, Felton Park Wood, Fochabers Woods, Gait Barrows, Glasdrum Wood, Glen Affric, Glenarm, Haugh Wood, Higher Hyde, Horsenden Hill, Hounslow Heath LNR, Howardian Local Nature Reserve, Hutton Roof Crags, Hyde, Invermoriston, Knock Craggie, Latterbarrow, Latton Woods, Lavernock, Leighton Moss, Linn of Tummel, Mansmead wood, Meanwood Park, Midgham Lakes, Mill Hill, Millenium Arboretum, Moss Field, Mynydd Marian, Nupend Wood, Old Down, Basingstoke, Rookery, Roudsea Wood NNR, Ryton Woods Meadows, Strumpshaw Fen, Tophill Low, Tynemouth Priors Park, Uffmoor Wood, Viking Field/LesleySears, Warton Crag, Winsdon Hill

  Conservation Status  

This is one of our few species that is doing well, with a sustained expansion to its range. It is believed that this butterfly has benefited from a reduction in coppicing, resulting in shadier woodland that this butterfly favours. As such, it is not a species of conservation concern.

UK BAP StatusDistribution TrendPopulation Trend
Not ListedIncreaseIncrease

From The State of Butterflies in Britain and Ireland and the UK Biodiversity Action Plan (UK BAP) (2007 review).


  Links  

The following links provide additional information on this butterfly.

  References  

The species description provided here references the following publications:

ReferenceDetails
Dennis (1977) Dennis, R.L.H.: The British Butterflies - Their Origin and Establishment. 1977.
Godart (1821) Godart, J.B.: Histoire naturelle des lépidoptères ou papillons de France. 1821.
Harrison (1949) Harrison, J.W.H.: Rhopalocera in the Scottish Western Isles in 1948, with an account of two new forms of Pararge aegeria L. (Lep. Satyridae). Entomologist's Monthly Magazine. 1949.
Howarth (1971) Howarth, T.G.: Descriptions of a new British subspecies of Pararge aegeria (L.) (Lep., Satyridae) and an aberration of Cupido minimus (Fuessly) (Lep., Lycaenidae). Entomologist's Gazette. 1971.
Howarth (1973) Howarth, T.G.: South's British Butterflies. 1973.
Linnaeus (1758) Linnaeus, C.: Systema Naturae. Edn.10. 1758.
Thompson (1952) Thompson, J.A.: Butterflies in the Coastal Region of North Wales. Entomologist's Record and Journal of Variation. 1952.
Thomson (1980) Thomson, G.: The Butterflies of Scotland. 1980.

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