The Duke of Burgundy is the sole representative of a subfamily known as the "metalmarks", since some of its cousins, particularly those found in south America, have a metallic appearance. A curious characteristic of this subfamily is that the female has 6 fully-functional legs, whereas the male has only 4 - the forelegs being greatly reduced. The Duke of Burgundy was once classified as a fritillary, given the similarity with those fritillary species found in the British Isles. This butterfly is found mainly in central southern England, although scattered colonies are found elsewhere such as in the north of England in Cumbria and Yorkshire. This species is not found in Wales, Scotland, Ireland, the Isle of Man or the Channel Islands. Although relatively-large colonies exist, most colonies only contain around a dozen individuals at the peak of the flight season.
Verity (1923) names the English race ssp. parvifulvior, comparing it with the race fulvior (Rocci, 1905) which is larger in size and shows extensive warm toned ground colour: "A series from Belstead Wood, near Ipswich, is markedly fulvior and warm in tone, but of the smaller (23mm.) nymotypical lucina size. I think it will be convenient to introduce the name parvifulvior for it".
This species was first defined in Linnaeus (1758) as shown here (type locality: Europe).
Long-term distribution and population trends show that this butterfly is in serious decline. It is therefore a priority species for conservation efforts. It is thought that this species is unable to survive intensive grazing of chalk and limestone grasslands and that this is, at least, one possible cause of the decline. It is also unable to tolerate areas where the foodplant becomes too shaded by surrounding shrubs and grasses. A delicate balance therefore exists that requires specific site management to cater for this delightful little butterfly.
The table above shows the distribution and population trends of species regularly found in the British Isles. The distribution trend represents a comparison between data for the periods 1995-1999 and 2005-2009. The information provided is taken from the Butterfly Conservation report The State of the UK's Butterflies 2011. The UK BAP status is taken from the UK Biodiversity Action Plan (UK BAP) (2007 review).
This butterfly was, in the past, primarily known as a woodland butterfly, where it fed on Primroses growing in dappled sunlight, with a number of colonies in chalk and limestone grassland. However, the cessation of coppicing in woodlands has had a marked effect on this species, with many woodland colonies dying out as a result. Primrose is used as the larval foodplant in woodland, whereas Cowslip is used on grassland.
Click here to see the distribution of this species or here to see the distribution of this species together with specific site information overlaid. Alternatively, select one of the sites listed below.
|Aston Upthorpe Downs, Batcome Hill, Beacon Hill, Bentley Wood, Bison Hill, Blackmoor Copse, Buckland Wood, Butser Hill, Cerne Hill Giant, Clubmen's Down, Dancersend, Dean Hill (West), Denge Forest, Duchie's Piece, Fontmell Down, Gait Barrows, Grangelands, Headley Heath, Heyshott Escarpment, Ivinghoe, Langley Burrell, Morgan's Hill, Noar Hill, Old Winchester Hill, Park Wood, Prestbury Hill, Sewell Cutting, Springhead, Strawberry Banks, Stubhampton Bottom, Thurlbear Quarrylands, Totternhoe Knolls and Quarry, Whipsnade, Whitbarrow Scar, Witch Lodge Fields|
There is one brood each year, with the adults emerging at the end of April in southern sites, peaking in the middle of May. A partial second brood may appear in some years, but this is the exception, rather than the rule, and only occurs in certain sites in the south of England.
The chart(s) above have been correlated with the phenology plot below, taken from the UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme. The blue line gives average counts over the full data set from 1976 to date, and the red line gives the average for the last year.
The sexes are similar in appearance, although the female tends to have more orange on the wings and rounder tips to the forewings. The male and female can also be distinguished by behaviour. The fast-flying males are extremely territorial and will sit on a favourite perch, darting out to inspect anything that might be a passing female. Once a virgin female is encountered, the two mate without any discernable courtship. This is usually in mid-morning just after the females have emerged. The flight of the female is not as rapid as the male and they are often seen when egg-laying as they move from plant to plant, landing on the edge of a leaf before curling their abdomen to lay on the underside of the leaf.
Adults only occasionally nectar, usually in warmer weather, with Wood Spurge, Buttercup, Hawthorn and Bugle being favourites. Both sexes roost in tall scrub or trees.
Adults feed primarily on Tormentil (Potentilla erecta). Bugle (Ajuga reptans), Buttercups (Ranunculus spp.), Hawthorns (various) (Crataegus spp.) and Wood Spurge (Euphorbia amygdaloides) are also used.
Eggs are normally laid singly, or in small batches of just 3 or 4 eggs, on the underside of the edge of a leaf of the foodplant. Nearby foliage may be used on occasion, especially when the foodplant is within dense vegetation. Large, lush, green-leaved plants are typically used, either among grasses or close to scrub. Snails are known to cause heavy losses of eggs, as they feed on primula leaves during the spring. Eggs hatch in 1 to 3 weeks, depending on the weather.
On hatching, the young larva eats its eggshell before moving to the base of the foodplant, feeding only at night. Larvae emerge at dusk, and can be found in torchlight, usually feeding on the upperside of the leaves. A tell-tale sign of a larva is a characteristic patchwork of holes made in the leaf surface, leaving the major veins intact. There are 3 moults in total and this stage lasts around 6 weeks.
The primary larval foodplants are Cowslip (Primula veris) and Primrose (Primula vulgaris). False Oxlip (Primula veris x vulgaris) is also used.
The pupa is usually formed away from the foodplant in leaf litter, a grass tussock or other vegetation, secured by a silk girdle and the cremaster. It is believed that shrews are responsible for heavy losses during the pupal stage in which this species hibernates.
Description to be completed.
Click here to see a full list of aberrations for this species.
Photo © Steve & Maggie East
ab. albomaculata (Blachier.Bull.Soc.Lep.Gen.1909.1.p.379.pl.9.f.3.)
= constellata Lambillion.Rev.Mens.Soc.Ent.Nam.1913.13.p.100.
The median spots of the hindwings upperside are white instead of tawny.
ab. gracilens (Derenne.Lamb.1927.27.p.11.)
All the black bands reduced, allowing an extension of the ground colour.
ab. leucodes (Lambillion.Rev.Mens.Soc.Ent.Nam.1913.p.100.)
The ground colour whitish instead of the usual fulvous.
No similar species found.
The following links provide additional information on this butterfly.
The species description provided here references the following publications:
|Grote (1895)|| Grote, A.R. (1895) Systema Lepidopterorum Hildesiae: juxta opera praeliminaria, quae edirunt Bates, Scudder, Guilielmus Mueller, Comstock, Dyar, Chapman.|
|Hübner (1819)|| Hübner, J. (1819) Verzeichniss bekannter Schmettlinge.|
|Linnaeus (1758)|| Linnaeus, C. (1758) Systema Naturae. Edition 10.|
|Tutt (1906a)|| Tutt, J.W. (1906) A Natural History of the British Lepidoptera v8 (British Butterflies v1).|
|Verity (1923)|| Verity, R. (1923) Races and Seasonal Polymorphism of the Grypocera and of the Rhopalocera of Peninsular Italy. Entomologist's Record and Journal of Variation.|