Camberwell Beauty

Nymphalis antiopa (nim-FAY-liss an-tee-OH-puh)

Camberwell Beauty - imago - Thatcham - 25-Jul-08 (1) {REARED}
Photo © Pete Eeles
 

Wingspan
Male: 76 - 86mm
Female: 78 - 88mm

Checklist Number
59.028

Family:NymphalidaeRafinesque, 1815
Subfamily:NymphalinaeRafinesque, 1815
Tribe:NymphaliniRafinesque, 1815
Genus:NymphalisKluk, 1780
Subgenus:  
Species:antiopa(Linnaeus, 1758)

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Introduction

The Camberwell Beauty is a rare migrant to the British Isles, originating in Scandinavia and mainland Europe. In some years there is a relatively-large influx of individuals, as occurred in 1846, 1872, 1947, 1976, 1995 and 2006, where individuals were reported throughout the British Isles. Like many migrants, this butterfly does not maintain a sustainable breeding population here since mating only occurs after hibernation and those adults that do manage to overwinter successfully are so few in number that the chances of finding a mate is small. None of the immature stages has ever been found in the wild in the British Isles.

The Aurelian by Moses Harris, published in 1766, gives this butterfly the name "The Grand Surprize" or "Camberwell Beauty", based on 2 individuals that were caught in Cold Arbour Lane near Camberwell in 1748. In America, this butterfly is known as the Mourning Cloak. Although there have been sightings from many parts of the British Isles, most records are from eastern counties.

Nymphalis antiopa

This species was first defined in Linnaeus (1758) as shown here (type locality: Sweden, America).

Camberwell Beauty - imago - Newbury - 29-Aug-06 (2) [Paul Olive]

Male
Photo © Paul Olive

Camberwell Beauty - imago - Thatcham - 20-Sep-07 (1205) {REARED}

Male Underside
Photo © Pete Eeles

Camberwell Beauty - imago - Unknown location - 2008 [REARED] [Nigel Venters]

Female
Photo © Nigel Venters

Camberwell Beauty (Mating couple) - Alpes-Maritimes - 1 April 2010

Female Underside
Photo © CFB

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Conservation Status

No conservation action is relevant for this species.

Habitat

This butterfly is a great wanderer and is often seen in gardens feeding on rotting fruit, such as plums. The same individual will often remain in the same location for several days. In the spring the adults will feed from sallow flowers and sap runs.

Distribution

1.2 Rare Migrant
 

This species is a rare migrant to the British Isles.

Life Cycle

Although the adults have been seen in every month of the year, immigrants start to arrive in June and July, with a definite peak of sightings in August and September. Some of these adults go into hibernation and are sometimes disturbed from their hibernation site, such as a log pile or outbuilding. A small proportion of hibernating adults survive until the following year. This happened quite recently when several individuals from the 2006 influx were seen in early 2007. There is one brood each year.

Imago

This is a distinctive butterfly, even in flight, as the white wing borders are unmistakable. The adult is a solitary insect and, as such, migrates singly rather that in the swarms associated with other migrant species.

Description of nectar sources to be completed.

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Ovum

Eggs are laid in clusters around a twig of the foodplant. The size of the clusters varies considerably and may contain any number of eggs, usually between 30 and 250.

Camberwell Beauty - ovum - Unknown location - 2008 [REARED] [Nigel Venters]

Photo © Nigel Venters

Camberwell Beauty - ovum - Unknown location - 2008 (3) [REARED] [Nigel Venters]

Photo © Nigel Venters

Camberwell Beauty - ovum - Unknown location - 2008 (2) [REARED] [Nigel Venters]

Photo © Nigel Venters

Camberwell Beauty - ovum - Unknown location - Unknown date [REARED] [Nigel Venters]

Photo © Nigel Venters

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Larva

Larvae feed gregariously but disperse just prior to pupation, where they may travel quite some distance.

The primary larval foodplants are Elms (various) (Ulmus spp.), Poplars (various) (Populus spp.) and Willows (various) (Salix spp.).

Camberwell Beauty - larva - Thatcham - 25-Aug-07 (3) {REARED}

Photo © Pete Eeles
25-Aug-2007

Camberwell Beauty - larva - Thatcham - 23-Aug-07 (1180) {REARED}

Photo © Pete Eeles
23-Aug-2007

Camberwell Beauty - larva - Thatcham - 02-Jul-08 (1) {REARED}

Photo © Pete Eeles
02-Jul-2008

Camberwell Beauty - larva - Unknown location - Unknown date (2) [REARED] [Nigel Venters]

Photo © Nigel Venters

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Pupa

The pupa hangs upside-side attached by its cremaster to a leaf stem or twig. This stage lasts around 3 weeks.

Camberwell Beauty - pupa - Thatcham - 04-Sep-07 (1189)

Photo © Pete Eeles
04-Sep-2007

Camberwell Beauty - pupa - Thatcham - 13-Jul-08 (5) {REARED}

Photo © Pete Eeles
13-Jul-2008

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Aberrations

Description to be completed.

Click here to see the aberration descriptions and images for this species.

Similar Species

No similar species found.

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The following links provide additional information on this butterfly.

References

The species description provided here references the following publications:

ReferenceDetails
Kluk (1780) Kluk, K. (1780) Zwierzat domowych i dzikich osobliwie kraiowych historyi naturalney poczatki i gospodarstwo.
Linnaeus (1758) Linnaeus, C. (1758) Systema Naturae. Edition 10.
Rafinesque (1815) Rafinesque, C.S. (1815) Analyse de la nature ou Tableau de l'univers et des corps organisés.