Small Heath Aberrations

Due to the sheer number of named aberrations for some species, not all are shown on the species pages - only those for which corresponding images are available. This page, however, provides access to all of the named aberrations for a given species, where known and Goodson & Read (1969) is a key resource in this regard.



Description to be completed.

Unclassified Aberrations

Small Heath albino

Photo © traplican

Small Heath albino

Photo © traplican

Small Heath (ab. obsoletissima) - Broughton Downs 1-Sept-2007

Photo © Ashywolf

Small-Heath-Lincoln 25 July 2009 I9T2540 (extra underwing eyespot)

Photo © IainLeach

Small Heath - aberration - Vernditch Chase - 23-May-2010 [Tim Norriss]

Photo © Tim Norriss

Small Heath (ab.alba) - near Mayfield, Sussex 20-June-2014 [Mike Mullis]1

Photo © Mike Mullis

Small Heath (ab.alba) - near Mayfield, Sussex 20-June-2014 [Mike Mullis]2

Photo © Mike Mullis

Small Heath (ab. alba) Hadleigh Country Park, Essex 06.07.15

Photo © bugboy

Small Heath (extra eye-spot), Brook's Snatnalls Wood, Chiltons, 27/05/15

Photo © bugboy

Small Heath female ab. - Chalton Down, Hampshire 5-July-2010 [Richard Symonds]

Photo © Richard Symonds

Small Heath ab. - Dungeness 22-Sept-2012

Photo © Hoggers

Small Heath - Larkhill - 26-05-2016

Photo © Wurzel

Small Heath ab. - Wild Park LNR, Brighton, Sussex 24-Aug-2016 [Peter Whitcomb]

Photo © Peter Whitcomb

Small Heath (ab. antiparvipuncta) - Tide Mills, Newhaven, Sussex 6-Sept-2016

Photo © trevor

Small Heath ab. - Bookham Common 16-June-2017

Photo © bugboy
Bleached scale defect. Only effected left forewing.

Photo Album (15 photos) ...

ab. addenda [a] (

Underside of the forewings with the apical spot doubled and two extra spots beneath this, making four spots on each wing. On one of the forewings there is a fifth spot placed just above the apical one. Leeds once again meddles with other author’s names and causes confusion. In his incomprehensible work on this and other species he changes addenda to examples “with an additional spot placed higher than the apical one”. This of course cannot stand [Goodson & Read].

ab. addenda [b] (Leeds.(nom.preoc.Reverdin).Proc.S.Lond.Ent.&.Nat.Hist.Soc.(1948-49)1950.p.116.)

Underside of forewings with an additional spot placed higher than the subapical one. Reverdin’s figure shows such a spot but with two other spots below the main one. Leeds apparently wants to restrict the name to just the one spot above the main one. He cannot do this under the same name as Reverdin’s, so the form requires a new name.

ab. alba (Pruffer.Bull.Acad.Pol.(Sci.).1920.)

The middle area of both fore and hindwings white.

ab. albata (

Albino. All dark markings of both upper and underside replaced by creamy-white, most noticeable and striking on the underside.

ab. albescens (Robson & Gardner.Young.Nat.List.1886.p.4.Suppl.vol.7.)

= eburnea
= albula Strand.Nyt.Mag.Naturv.1904.42.p.132.
= pallida Oudemans.(nom.preoc.Tutt)
= pallidus Delahaye.Suppl.Cat.Lep.Maine-et-Loire.1909.p.12.
= lacticolor Leeds.Proc.S.Lond.Ent.&.Nat.Hist.Soc.(1948-49)1950.p.110.

The ground colour whitish-yellow instead of the normal orange. This is the palest of the yellow forms. Habich’s eburnea was described as an albino similar to the specimen figured in Esper’s This shows the wings almost white. Habich’s own figure is nothing like this and probably the fault of the printing, the hindwings are heavily smoked over and certainly would not come under the term albino, the figure in Esper must therefore be accepted as his eburnea. The other forms, given as synonyms of albescens, are of various shades of whitish-yellow and hardly separable.

ab. amaryllides (,Ent.Z.1911.24.p.239.)

On the upperside of the forewings there are four spots, including the apical one, which is blind and very large. Hindwings with a broader, stronger marginal band and a row of marginal spots preceding it. On the underside the main apical spot of the forewing is doubled but both spots are enclosed in the same yellow ring, the upper one pupilled with white, the lower unpupilled. Beneath this double spot there are two others as on the upperside.

ab. antialba (Leeds.Proc.S.Lond.Ent.&.Nat.Hist.Soc.(1948-49)1950.p.110.)

Underside of the forewings extensively white.

ab. antialbocuneata (Leeds.Proc.S.Lond.Ent.&.Nat.Hist.Soc.(1948-49)

Underside of forewings with a series of long whitish wedges extending from the border inwards, their points extending along the veins into the fulvous ground colour.

ab. antibipunctata (Lempke.(

= bipupillata Leeds.(nec.Cosmovici).Proc.S.Lond.Ent.&.Nat.Hist.Soc.(1948-49)

Upperside of the forewings with an extra spot, unpupilled, beneath the normal one. Leeds wrongly includes this form under Cosmovici’s bipupillata, which was an underside form and Lempke rightly renames it.

ab. anticastanea (Leeds.Proc.S.Lond.Ent.&.Nat.Hist.Soc.(1948-49)

Underside of forewings coffee or dark brown between the base and the transverse stripe.

ab. anticrassipuncta (Leeds.Proc.S.Lond.Ent.&.Nat.Hist.Soc.(1948-49)

The apical spot on the underside of the forewings very large.

ab. antiexcessa (Leeds.Proc.S.Lond.Ent.&.Nat.Hist.Soc.(1948-49)

The underside of the forewings with one or more extra black spots. The name can only be used for forewings showing three black spots including the apical one, names having already been given to examples with one extra spot = neca Strand and biocellata Strand, and three extra spots = addenda Reverdin. It is however somewhat doubtful if Leeds had seen a forewing with two extra spots, his figure shows an example of ab. neca Strand [Goodson & Read].

ab. antilacticolor (Leeds.Proc.S.Lond.Ent.&.Nat.Hist.Soc.(1948-49)1950.p.110.)

Underside of the forewings exceptionally pale, mainly creamy or straw.

ab. antimixtaexcessa (Leeds.Proc.S.Lond.Ent.&.Nat.Hist.Soc.(1948-49)1950.p.116.)

Forewing with an extra black spot, but the other forewing normal.

ab. antipallidula (Leeds.Proc.S.Lond.Ent.&.Nat.Hist.Soc.(1948-49)1950.p.110.)

Underside of forewings paler than the type [typical form], yellowish or ochreous.

ab. antiparvipuncta (Leeds.Proc.S.Lond.Ent.&.Nat.Hist.Soc.(1948-49)

The apical spot on the underside of the forewings very small.

ab. antirufa (Leeds.Proc.S.Lond.Ent.&.Nat.Hist.Soc.(1948-49)1950.p.111.,

Forewings bright reddish or red, surpassing any bright orange colour.

ab. apicoextensa (Leeds.Proc.S.Lond.Ent.&.Nat.Hist.Soc.(1948-49)1950.p.116.)

The apical spot of the underside of the forewings elongated, but not downwards.

ab. aurea (Leeds.Proc.S.Lond.Ent.&.Nat.Hist.Soc.(1948-49)1950.p.113.)

Underside of the hindwings with the basal area of a golden tint well developed. Figured in Frohawk’s

ab. balearica (Muschamp.Ent.Rec.1904.16.p.222.)

Underside of forewings, below the apical spot, between veins IV1 and IV2, there is a black unpupilled spot surrounded by a narrow band of light tawny, similar to that surrounding the apical spot.

ab. bicolor (Peerdeman.Ent.Ber.(Amst.)

Both forewings of a different colour from that of the hindwings. Pathological forms not included.

ab. biirregularia (Leeds.Proc.S.Lond.Ent.&.Nat.Hist.Soc.(1948-49)1950.p.113.)

Wing or wings of one side of a different colour from those of the opposite side.

ab. biocellata (Strand.Nyt.Mag.Naturv.1904.42.pp.131-132.)

The apical spot of the forewing underside is doubled and enclosed in the same yellow ring; the lower spot however is without a white pupil.

ab. bipertita (Verity.Ent.Rec.1919.31.p.121.)

The marginal band of the upperside divided into two. Verity does not state whether transversely or across but in his Farf.It.5.p.112 he says, “the dark border of the hindwings divided into two, by a narrow fulvous line”.

ab. bipunctata (Gussich.Glasnik.Hrvats.Prirodosl.Drustva.1917.29.p.221.)

On the upperside of the hindwing, two rather large white spots (original description). This would appear to be a pathological form, with two bleached patches.

ab. bipupillata (Cosmovici.Le Nat.1892.p.264.)

On the underside of the forewings the apical spot is doubled but fused together, each spot having a white pupil.

ab. brunnescens (Leeds.Proc.S.Lond.Ent.&.Nat.Hist.Soc.(1948-49)1950.p.111.)

The ground colour brownish or brown. Leeds cites the figure in, which is hardly brown, more of a pinkish-fawn. The form is therefore not very dark.

ab. caeca (Oberthü,Lep.Comp.1910.4.(1).p.48.)

= caecaella Strand.(ür).Arch.Naturg.1925-27.91.A12.p.281.
= antiobsoletissima Leeds.Proc.S.Lond.Ent.&.Nat.Hist.Soc.(1948-49)

The main apical ocellus of the forewing absent on the underside and on the upperside also. This is the original description in Etudes on p.35 but the figure is a strange one. This shows the apical spot absent but beneath it, on one forewing, a large black spot, and on the other forewing three somewhat smaller black marks. These are not mentioned at all in the description which seems strange because the form must be much rarer than one with just the apical spot absent. The description however must be taken which merely stresses the absence of the main apical spot above and below. Strand renamed Oberthür’s caeca under the impression that it was not described until 1910 and was therefore preoccupied by Strand’s name caeca of 1904. Actually it is Strand’s name, which is preoccupied by Oberthür’s caeca 1896. Leeds antiobsoletissima had the apical spot of the underside reduced to a brightish-brown slight spotting or ring or in extreme cases entirely absent.

ab. costatransformis (Leeds.Proc.S.Lond.Ent.&.Nat.Hist.Soc.(1948-49)1950.p.112.)

A narrow pale band along the costa but not pure white.

ab. crassichevro (Leeds.Proc.S.Lond.Ent.&.Nat.Hist.Soc.(1948-49)

Underside of hindwings with the marginal chevrons distinctly brown or dark grey and joined together to form a long line-like development.

ab. detersa (Verity.Bull.Soc.Ent.Fr.1913.45.p.226.)

The marginal border of all wings fails. The apical spot of the forewings is fawn coloured.

ab. fumidescens (Leeds.Proc.S.Lond.Ent.&.Nat.Hist.Soc.(1948-49)1950.p.113.)

Female only. Underside of hindwings with the basal area much darker than normal. Leeds says that this does not apply to males as they are normally darker based.

ab. glaucopis (Lowe.Ent.Rec.1914.47.p.19.)

An enormous apical spot on the upperside of the forewings. On the underside it is pupilled with a white spot 3mm wide.

ab. havelaarii (Lambillion.Rev.Mens.Soc.Ent.Nam.1902.p.11.)

Forewings with the apical angle, as far as the cell, of the colour of very light dregs of wine. This colour also invades the base of the wings and is tied to the apical area by the median vein, which is also tinted. The costa more whitish than in the type [typical form], the hindwings darker than normal. This is the original description [Goodson & Read].

ab. impupillata (Lempke.Lamb.1933.33.p.78.)

The apical spot on the underside of the forewings contains no white pupil.

ab. irregularia (Leeds.Proc.S.Lond.Ent.&.Nat.Hist.Soc.(1948-49)1950.p.113.)

An unusual patch of darker or brighter coloured scaling on a wing or wings.

ab. latecana (Verity.Z.Wiss.Ins.Biol.1926.21.p.204.)

The marginal border of all wings of a pale grey instead of blackish, and wider than normal.

ab. latiora (Leeds.Proc.S.Lond.Ent.&.Nat.Hist.Soc.(1948-49)

The blackish marginal border of the hindwings extending broadly inwards as far as the transverse marking. The female does not develop this to the same extent as the male.

ab. lineigera (Strand.Ent.Z.1912.15.p.257.,

Named from the figure by Oudemans. The main points are that on the underside of the forewings the oblique bar reaches from the costa down to cell 2, whilst on the hindwings there is a pronounced black thin line running from the costa and preceding the white area, thus dividing the white area from the basal area by its standing out in a much darker colour, the basal area being grey.

ab. major (Agassiz.Mitt.Schweiz.Ent.Ges.1900.10.p.244.)

= major
= major Leeds.Proc.S.Lond.Ent.&.Nat.Hist.Soc.(1948-49)1950.p.117.

Large specimens of 34mm. Leeds major was over 35mm in the male and over 37mm in the female.

ab. minor (Agassiz.Mitt.Schweiz.Ent.Ges.1900.10.p.244.)

= minor Leeds.Proc.S.Lond.Ent.&.Nat.Hist.Soc.(1948-49)1950.p.117.

Small specimens of 23mm. Leeds minor was under 28mm in the male and under 30mm in the female.

ab. mixtaexcessa (Leeds.Proc.S.Lond.Ent.&.Nat.Hist.Soc.(1948-49)1950.p.116.)

A fore and hindwing with an extra black spot, but those on the opposite side normal.

ab. multipuncta (Schultz.Soc.Ent.1904.19.p.11.)

= excessa Leeds.(in part).Proc.S.Lond.Ent.&.Nat.Hist.Soc.(1948-49)1950.p.115.

Upperside with large apical spot and an extra small spot at the inner angle of the forewings, which is showing through from the underside. On the hindwings there are two black marginal spots, quite large and just interior to the marginal band. On the underside the extra forewing spot is more definite.

ab. murina (Verity.Bull.Soc.Ent.It.1913.45.p.228.)

Underside of the hindwings more obscured, of a bluish tint towards the base and with little or none of the whitish marking.

ab. neca (Strand.Arch.Naturg.1919.85.A4.p.17.)

= antiexcessa Leeds.(in part).Proc.S.Lond.Ent.&.Nat.Hist.Soc.(1948-49)

Underside of the forewings with an extra small spot in cell 2, near the inner margin.

ab. nigrita (Stauder.Int.Ent.Z.1924.17.pp.152-153.)

Upperside of forewings with black streaks radiating from an abnormally broad margin to the base. Hindwings almost entirely black, only the base remaining ochreous. Underside correspondingly dark.

ab. nolkeniana (Strand.Ent.Mitt.1917.6.p.296.)

Underside of hindwings with the white band more developed and reaching the internal border.

ab. nosalica (Pruffer.Bull.Acad.Polon.Sc.&.Lettres.,

= postexcessa Leeds.Proc.S.Lond.Ent.&.Nat.Hist.Soc.(1948-49)

Hindwings with one or more small black spots before the margins.

ab. obliquajuncta (Leeds.Proc.S.Lond.Ent.&.Nat.Hist.Soc.(1948-49)

Underside of the forewings with the transverse bar reaching from the costa obliquely to the anal angle.

ab. obscura (Leeds.Proc.S.Lond.Ent.&.Nat.Hist.Soc.(1948-49)1950.p.112.)

The ground colour dark smoky greyish, but centrally may show some ochreous.

ab. obsoleta (Tutt.Brit.Butts.1896.p.422.)

= caeca Strand.(nom.preoc.Oberthür).Nyt.Mag.Naturv.1904.42.p.132.
= antiobsoletissima Leeds.Proc.S.Lond.Ent.&.Nat.Hist.Soc.(1948-49)1950.p.117.

On the upperside of the forewings the apical spot is completely absent. It is obvious that Tutt meant upperside and not underside in his description, since he talks of underside forms later in his article.

ab. obsoletissima (Leeds.Proc.S.Lond.Ent.&.Nat.Hist.Soc.(1948-49)

Underside of both fore and hindwings devoid of spots.

ab. ocellata (Tutt.Brit.Butts.1896.p.422.)

= rufoocellata Leeds.Proc.S.Lond.Ent.&.Nat.Hist.Soc.(1948-49)1950.p.116.

On the underside of the hindwings there is a row of white pupils, set in strongly brownish-red spots, preceding the margins.

ab. pallescens (Castle-Russell.Ent.Rec.1922.34.p.51.)

Described as, “a fine pale golden male”. The description of an aberration sold at a sale. What colour golden is, in pamphilus, is rather difficult to decide, so it is left alone and not made the same as ab. pallidua Leeds, which it may possibly be [Goodson & Read].

ab. pallida (Tutt.Brit.Butts.1896.p.422.)

Pale yellowish-tawny, with pale grey margins, resembling the C. typhon [syn. Coenonympha tullia, Large Heath] form isis. The pale grey margins apparently are prominent enough to make the form look like typhon [tullia].

ab. pallidula (Leeds.Proc.S.Lond.Ent.&.Nat.Hist.Soc.(1948-49)1950.p.110.,

Ground colour paler than type [typical], ochreous or very pale orange.

ab. partimtransformis (Leeds.Proc.S.Lond.Ent.&.Nat.Hist.Soc.(1948-49)

Portions of a wing or wings with pale bleached or scaleless patches. Obviously pathological.

ab. postalbomargo (Leeds.Proc.S.Lond.Ent.&.Nat.Hist.Soc.(1948-49)

On the hindwings the dark marginal border changes to white or whitish-grey in its lower half. In some specimens the veins divide the whitish colour into rather large squares.

ab. postcuneata (Leeds.Proc.S.Lond.Ent.&.Nat.Hist.Soc.(1948-49)

On the hindwings the blackish border shows at least four dark wedge-shaped marks pointing inwards.

ab. postmixtaexcessa (Leeds.Proc.S.Lond.Ent.&.Nat.Hist.Soc.(1948-49)1950.p.116.)

Hindwings with one or more black spots before the margin on one side, but normal on the other.

ab. postobsoletissima (Leeds.Proc.S.Lond.Ent.&.Nat.Hist.Soc.(1948-49)

Underside of the hindwings devoid of the white marginal spots.

ab. postquadriexcessa (Leeds.Proc.S.Lond.Ent.&.Nat.Hist.Soc.(1948-49)

Hindwings with four small black spots before the margins. This is covered by Leeds own name of postexcessa, which is a synonym of ab. nosalica Pruffer, but may stand as an extreme form, the four-spotted form not being common.

ab. rubescens (Lowe.Ent.Rec.1907.19.p.104.)

Rich coloration and slightly suffused with a distinct purplish tinge.

ab. rufa (Leeds.Proc.S.Lond.Ent.&.Nat.Hist.Soc.(1948-49)1950.p.111.,

The ground colour covers a considerable range, the lighter ones being rosy, terracotta or red, others are bright brownish with a good tinting of reddish terracotta. The figure in Ford, mentioned by Leeds, is merely reddish-orange.

ab. semilyllus (Krulikowsky.Soc.Ent.1908.23.p.3.)

On the underside of the hindwings there is a row of white marginal spots, the wings are paler than in the type form [typical form]. Upperside also paler than the type form [typical form]. Very similar to ab. ocellata Tutt but the white spots apparently not brown-ringed.

ab. semimarginata (Rebel.Jahresb.Wien.Ent.Ver.(1919)1924.30.p.41.)

= nigromarginata Lempke.Lamb.1931.31.p.68.
= nigromargo Leeds.Proc.S.Lond.Ent.&.Nat.Hist.Soc.(1948-49)1950.p.113.

The marginal borders of all wings strongly black-brown, but not widened. Lempke sinks his ab. nigromarginata as a synonym, Tijdschr.Ent.100.p.485.

ab. subsuffusa (Leeds.Proc.S.Lond.Ent.&.Nat.Hist.Soc.(1948-49)1950.p.112.)

Forewing with a bleached, whitish or scaleless patch starting at the apex. Obviously a pathological form, which should not have been named.

ab. tardenota (

On the upperside of the forewing there is a round black spot near the apex. It is not one merely showing through from the underside. This is such a common form that it is hardly separable, there being every degree of variation from those with little or no spot, to those with a well marked blackish one. The name can be used for specimens with a decided black spot, not greyish ones.

ab. transformis (Leeds.Proc.S.Lond.Ent.&.Nat.Hist.Soc.(1948-49)

One, two or three wings bleached, greasy, or thinly scaled. At least one wing must be so.

ab. transiens (Caruel.Misc.Ent.1944.41.p.37.)

Ground colour of the upperside red-brown or mahogany-brown, without a trace of the normal yellowish colour.

ab. tunioti (

On the underside of the forewings the black ring around the apical spot is interrupted towards the fringe, consequently having the shape of a letter C.

ab. ultraangustimargo (Leeds.Proc.S.Lond.Ent.&.Nat.Hist.Soc.(1948-49)

The marginal border of the forewings absent, leaving only the thin marginal line.

ab. unicolor (Tutt.Brit.Butts.1896.p.422.)

= postunicolor Leeds.Proc.S.Lond.Ent.&.Nat.Hist.Soc.(1948-49)

Underside of the hindwings devoid of the whitish band.

ab. venata (Lempke.Tijdschr.Ent.1957.100.p.485.)

The nervures on the upperside of the wings (fore or hind or both) are blackish.