Marbled White Aberrations

Due to the sheer number of named aberrations for some species, not all are shown on the species pages - only those for which corresponding images are available. This page, however, provides access to all of the named aberrations for a given species, where known and Goodson & Read (1969) is a key resource in this regard.

Species:

Introduction

Description to be completed.

Unclassified Aberrations

Marbled white - Middlebere, Dorset - 14-07-11

Photo © Stufus
ab. marconi or ab. nigrata
14-Jul-2011

Marbled white (underside) - Middlebere, Dorset - 14-07-11

Photo © Stufus
14-Jul-2011

Female Marbled White. ab. flava. 12/7/2014. Seaford, E. Sussex.

Photo © badgerbob
12-Jul-2014

Marbled White pair (female ab. flava) 12/7/2014. Seaford.

Photo © badgerbob
12-Jul-2014

Female Marbled White. ab. flava. 12/7/2014. Seaford, E. Sussex.

Photo © badgerbob
12-Jul-2014

Marbled White pair. Female ab. flava. 12/7/2014. Seaford, E. Sussex.

Photo © badgerbob
12-Jul-2014

Marbled White pair. Female ab. flava. 12/7/2014. Seaford, E. Sussex.

Photo © badgerbob
12-Jul-2014

Marbled White pair. Female ab. flava. 12/7/2014. Seaford, E. Sussex.

Photo © badgerbob
12-Jul-2014

Photo Album (8 photos) ...


ab. addenda (Grund.Soc.Ent.1908.23.p.82.)

On the underside of the hindwing there is an extra ocellus in cell 4. This cell normally shows no spot.

ab. albibasa (Lempke.Tijdschr.Ent.1957.100.p.443.)

The black marking at the base of the wings is absent, for the rest normal. Lempke does not say if it is fore, and hindwings, or how much black is absent. If it is the entire black area which stretches along the inner margin the form must be an extreme one.

ab. amarginata (Metzger.Jahresber.Wien.Ent.Ver.1897.8.p.21.pl.1.figs.1-2.)

The white marginal spots of the upperside not separated from the fringe by the usual black line, but running straight through.

ab. annae (Kesseler.Rev.Fr.Lep.1945.10.p.73.pl.3.figs.3-4.)

According to the author this specimen is a female with the coloration of a male both upper and underside, especially the latter. The figure shows what appears to be an ordinary male both in shape of wings and the underside of the abdomen [Goodson & Read].

ab. aperta (Rebel. Berge’s.Schmett.1910.p.37.,fig.Nat.Sic.20.pl.1.figs.1-2.)

= atthis Costantini.Atti.Soc.Nat.Mat.Modena.1916.49.p.14.,fig.Nat.Sic.20.pl.1.

The heterozygote of ab. mosleyi Oberthür and very similar. On the forewing the black bar on the costa, completely absent in mosleyi, is only indicated by slight dusting of the discocellular vein and a thinly dusted black line between veins 3 and 4, vertical and situated where the costal black bar usually ends as it stretches towards the outer margin. Hindwing with the median black band which surrounds the cell only indicated by black dusting more especially on the lower edge of the cell. In ab. mosleyi these dusted lines are completely absent on both fore and hindwings. The figure of ab. atthis Costantini shows that it is the same as ab. aperta Rebel.

ab. apicalis (Turati.Atti.Soc.It.Sci.Nat.1919.58.p.167.)

The light spots at the apex of the forewing are extended and invade the black field of the post-cellular, thus giving the impression of a completely different type of butterfly.

ab. bicuneata (Verity.Bull.Soc.Ent.It.1913.45.p.216.)

Upperside of the forewing with the two white central patches of the median band wedge-shaped, their points towards the margin.

ab. brunneocosta (Lempke.Tijdschr.Ent.1957.100.p.442.)

Forewing with the costa, from the base to the large black blotch at the apex, of a coffee-brown colour. Described from a female.

ab. caeca (Lempke.Tijdschr.Ent.1957.100.p.443.)

On the underside all eyespots are present but blind. This presumably means both fore and hindwings.

ab. caronae (Gallay.Mitt.Schweiz.Ent.Ges.1947.20.p.594.fig.p.596.)

The general patterning of the upperside is normal but most smaller white spots are reduced or effaced. The chief character is the absence of the veins, which normally show clearly in the white areas. The underside of the hindwing shows the black zigzag marginal line straightened out and running parallel with the outer black line, which precedes the fringe, this character showing to a lesser degree on the margin of the forewing. The ocelli of the hindwing are absent and only slight traces of the veins remain in the central white areas, the veins at the base are normal. Perineural defect.

ab. citrana (Lambillion.Cat.Lep.Belg.1906.Addenda.p.417.)

Above and below the ground colour is cream-yellow or pale citron-yellow, the markings black as in the type [typical form].

ab. citrina (Krulikowsky.Rev.Russe.Ent.1907.7.p.29.)

The ground colour above and below of a rich citron-yellow. Possibly the same as ab. citrana Lambillion but by the description of a much more definite yellow.

ab. decemocellata (Delahaye.Cat.Lep.Maine and Loire.1908.p.12.)

= completissima Stauder.(in part).Boll.Soc.Adriat.Sci.Nat.(1908)1911.25.(3).p.93.pl.2.f.7.

Underside of the forewing with three ocelli, the hindwing with seven. This form is included in ab. completissima, which however can also have four ocelli. See ab. deubeli Silbernagel.

ab. deficiens (Stauder.Boll.Soc.Adriat.Sci.Nat.(1908)1911.25.pt.3.p.111.pl.2.f.3.)

Instead of a row of well-developed ocelli on the underside of the hindwing, there are only weakly pupilled small spots with large surrounds. The apical eye of the forewing is present.

ab. depuncta (Stephan.Iris.1923.37.p.31.)

On the forewing the apical eyespot fails on both upper and underside.

ab. deubeli (Silbernagel.Ent.Z.1909.23.p.151.)

= completissima Stauder.Boll.Soc.Adriat.Sci.Nat.(1908)1911.25.(3).p.93.pl.2.f.7.

The description is long and rambling and not at all clear. The main points are that on the underside of the forewing there is a small spot in cell 4 and a pupilled eye in cell 5 (the apical eye). Also ocelli in cells 2 and 3, making 3 ocelli and one spot. On the hindwing a complete row of ocelli, making 7 if the double spot at the anal angle is counted as two. Stauder’s ab. completissima had an increase of eyespots on the underside of the forewing; 2, 3 or 4 ocelli. Hindwing with 5 ocelli as well as the double eyespot. All ocelli blue-white or milky centered.

ab. disjuncta (Gussich.Glasnik.Hrvats.Prirodosl.Drustva.1917.29.p.218.)

The original description merely says, “The white spot on the costa of the forewing is divided by a black streak into two parts”. This presumably is the oval white spot at the base of the costa since this is the only separated spot.

ab. duplex (Stauder.Boll.Soc.Adriat.Sci.Nat.(1908)1911.25.(3).p.112.)

Underside of forewing with, besides the apical eyespot, additional eyes in the formation of one right against the apical eye and attached to it in cell III2 / III3, or also in cell IV1 / IV2. Examples also occur with both these extra spots, i.e. with four complete ocelli, but they are very rare. All should be called ab. duplex irrespective of the number or position of the additional eyespots.

ab. duponti (Reverdin.Bull.Soc.Lep.Gen.1927.5.p.174.pl.5.f.9.)

The black marking restricted. On the upperside of forewing the black basal patch does not connect with the black of the costal bar. The costal bar itself is much reduced in width, less than half normal width, and the costa above it is white with no black shading. On the hindwing the black marking which surrounds the cell is much restricted, the upper portion being practically absent and the lower half extremely narrow. The underside corresponds with the upperside.

ab. electra (Meigen.Eur.Schmett.1829.1.p.99.pl.25.f.4.)

Taken from the figure in Esper.Suppl.1.pl.CXI.Cont.66.f.4. The ground colour yellow, the markings blackish-brown, the white spots in the margins absent on all wings. Meigen’s figure shows a much paler brown, more of a red-brown, than Esper’s, which is almost black. It differs from ab. fulvata Lowe by the complete absence of the light marginal spots.

ab. epanops (Rebel.Sitzungsber.Akad.Wiss.Wien.1917.126.A1.p.779.)

= epanopides Nitsche.Verh.zool.-bot.Ges.Wien.1919.69.p.104.

The apical eyespot of the upperside of the forewing stands out distinctly in a light area, not flowing into the black area. Rebel described the form under subspecies procida and Nitsche under galathea typical. Since they are the same gene it is undesirable to separate them [Goodson & Read].

ab. exteriusocellata (Verity.Boll.Lab.Zool.Gen.Agr.Portici.1920.14.p.56.)

On the underside of all wings the ocelli are arranged so that they almost reach the external margin, therefore the black pattern is extremely narrow. This also applies to the upperside.

ab. extrema (Stauder.Neue.Beitr.Syst.Ins.1920.1.p.148.fig.)

On the upperside of the forewing the white band is little interrupted by the veins and the marginal white spots are reduced to a minimum, especially towards the apex. The white spots at the apex much reduced but the main one is elongated and fuses with the white median band. The hindwing has no dividing black between the oval basal white patch and the white median band, the marginal white spots are reduced to three situated towards the anal angle. The apical eyespot of the forewing is absent on both upper and underside.

ab. fasciata (Lambillion.Rev.Mens.Soc.Ent.Nam.1909.9.p.74.,fig.Lamb.30.pl.10.f.3.)

On the upperside of the forewing there is a continuous white band from the costa to inner margin formed by the absence of the thin black dividing line normally seen in the white space between veins 1 and 2, which connects the median black area with the black marginal band. The white ground therefore forms a continuous band on both fore and hindwings.

ab. flava [a] (Tutt.Brit.Butts.1896.p.436.)

= lutetiana Oberthür.Lep.Comp.1910.3.p.346.,fig.vol.5.pl.LX.f.550.

Female in which the underside is bright orange-yellow. It is obvious that Tutt refers to the normally pale ground colour since he says, “the female varies from a form containing the slightest trace of ochreous to a form of bright orange-yellow colour”, ab. flava. Oberthür gives a coloured figure of his ab. lutetiana, which shows it to be the orange form and the same as Tutt’s. Oberthür in his description says it is a form of ab. leucomelas Esper with the markings come back, a somewhat strange conclusion. The figure shows the markings and ocelli normal, in a darker tone of orange-brown and therefore nothing to do with leucomelas [Goodson & Read].

ab. flava [b] (Linstow.(nom.preoc.Tutt).Berl.Ent.Z.1908.53.p.233.)

= ferruginea.Fritsche.Int.Ent.Z.1911.5.p.220.,fig.Hüb.Eur.Schmett.pl.41.f.185.

Underside of forewing yellowish-white, only the apex and distal margin rust-brown. Hindwing pale rust-yellow, the bands black dusted and therefore appearing dark rust.brown. Linstow says this is the form which Hübner figures in Samml.Eur.Schmett.1.pl.41.f.185 but that this must have been a very fresh specimen, presumably because it is highly coloured. Fritsch described his ferruginea as having the underside more or less rust-brownish and rust-yellow tinted.

ab. flavescens (Goetghebuer.Rev.Mens.Soc.Ent.Nam.1912.12.p.84.)

Underside of the forewing normal except the apical tip, which is yellowish. Hindwing with a cream ground, the markings and shading more or less deep ochreous but without any trace of black.

ab. flavina (Gaede.Seitz.Suppl.1930.1.p.153.,nom.nov.pro.flava.Fritsche.)

= flava Fritsche.Int.Ent.Z.1911.5.p.220.,nom.preoc.Tutt.

Male in which the ground colour is distinct yellow, brimstone, cream-yellow or loam. These shades of yellow are covered by ab. citrina Krulikowsky and ab. citrana Lambillion. Fritsche writes a far from clear article stating that the real name for males with yellow ground colour should be flava, ignoring priority and the various names already given. Gaede in Seitz gives the new name flavina since Tutt preoccupies flava. The name cannot be used even as a synonym of citrina or citrana since it includes all shades of yellow and it cannot have priority over either.

ab. fulvata (Lowe.Wheeler.Butts.Switz.1903.p.143.)

= brunissime Perrier.Lamb.1935.35.p.213.pl.9.figs.1-2.

The ground colour warm primrose-yellow, the black replaced by rich tawny-brown.

ab. galaxaera (Esper.Eur.Schmett.1800.Suppl.1.p.97.pl.CXI.Cont.66.f.5.)

In the figure the large white oval basal patch of the forewing is black dusted, all the white marginal lunules of fore and hindwings are absent and all white markings are narrower and smaller.

ab. galene (Ochsenheimer.Schmett.Eur.1808.1.(2).p.236.)

= galenides Preissecker.Verh.zool.-bot.Ges.Wien.1910.60.p.6.
= pura Niepelt.Int.Ent.Z.1914.8.p.144.

On the underside the apical eye of the forewing is completely absent and on the hindwing there is no trace of the usual ocelli. Preissecker’s galenides is genetically the same form but described under subspecies procida. Quite unnecessary so therefore treated as a synonym [Goodson & Read]. Niepelt’s pura is the same as galene. Seitz description of galene is quite wrong [Goodson & Read].

ab. gemellata (Costa.Bull.Soc.Ent.It.1922.53.p.113.fig.)

On the underside of the hindwing the second ring around the ocellus contains two spots or eyes instead of the normal one. The extra spot is elongated as in ab. perlongata Stauder, as is also the spot above it - in the cell nearest the apex.

ab. gigantea (Hartig.Ent.Rundsch.1924.41.p.42.)

Giant female, 56mm from apex to apex.

ab. goritiana (Stauder.Boll.Soc.Adriat.Sci.Nat.(1908)1911.25.(3).p.113.pl.2.f.6.)

All the ocelli of the underside of a quite noticeable size, 2 to 3mm in diameter, deep black, and in the male beautiful white-blue centered, in the female sky-blue centered. In the costal cell of the hindwing there is generally an additional unpupilled black ocellus present, without a surround. The number of ocelli on the forewing can vary from the normal one, often additional ones are present or, as in the figure, no ocellus at all.

ab. grisescens (Varin.Rev.Fr.Lep.1948.11.p.359.pl.7.f.8.)

The normal black markings replaced by grey with a whitish, slightly greenish reflection. Hindwings underside markings light brown, forewings underside grey as on upperside.

ab. illuminata (Stauder.Iris.1921.35.p.28.)

Female. All the white patterning enlarged. The lower white wedge of the forewing is joined to its neighbouring white median band spot. On the hindwing the black is heavily mixed with white, the outer margin also spotted and chequered with white.

ab. lactipicta (Stauder.Ent.Anz.1922.2.p.46.)

Female. The upperside of the forewing so lightened that it resembles the figure of Melanargia japygia [syn. russiae, Esper’s Marbled White] subspecies cleanthe Boisduval in Seitz.1.pl.38.row.d. There is also a complete absence of the black element at the apex, and the median markings are hardly visible. The white marginal spots on both wings particularly large. The eyespots of the hindwing completely isolated in a white area as in larissa herta and adriatica [subspecies of Melanargia larissa, Balkan Marbled White].

ab. leucogonia (Collier.Entom.1952.85.p.5.,fig.Barrett.1.pl.28.f.1a.)

On the upperside of the forewings the subapical black bar and the ocellated apical spot are entirely absent, leaving a large white area divided only by the black veins. The oblique median band, and the basal black patches, are slightly reduced in size, and the submarginal band on all wings reduced to a clear black line, shaded slightly in places, outlining the inside of the marginal white lunules. On each hindwing there are only two black spots, situated in interspaces 1a and 2, connecting with the marginal border by a small scattering of black scales. The basal black markings are reduced in size giving the appearance altogether of a much more white insect. Paratype male from the South Wales Coast.

ab. leucolmelas (Esper.Eur.Schmett.1782.1.(2).p.141.pl.LXXXI.Cont.XXXI.figs.1-2.)

Underside of the forewing at the apex, and the entire hindwing, creamy-brownish and markingless, only the markings of the upperside showing through. The form would seem to be confined to the Southern European race and specimens with English locality labels must be regarded with suspicion [Goodson & Read].

ab. lugens (Oberthür.Etudes.1896.20.p.33.pl.2.f.16.)

Entirely and uniformly black-brown on upperside of fore and hindwings. Underside of hindwings with the markings still visible, the base and marginal ocelli being slightly lightened. Apparently not even the position of the normal white patches can be seen, it is therefore more extreme than forms nigrata, nigra, hades and nigra-malmediensis.

ab. marconi (Frohawk.Vars.Brit.Butts.1938.pl.7.f.2.)

All white areas suffused with black scales producing a drab effect. The normally white areas are easily defined but dusky. In ab. nigra Frohawk the white areas are only faintly discernible.

ab. melania (Oberthür.Etudes.1896.20.p.33.pl.2.f.17.)

On the underside of the hindwing the white parts are so heavily dusted with black that they are obscured. Oberthür says that this darkening is principally on the underside, which suggests that it is present, to some extent, on the upperside.

ab. melanophthalma (Stauder.Boll.Soc.Adriat.Sci.Nat.(1908)1911.25.(3).p.113.pl.2.f.5.)

On the underside of the hindwing the ocelli, including the one near the apex, large as in ab. goritiana Stauder, but unpupilled and deep black. The ocelli on the forewing can be increased.

ab. minor (Pionneau.Echange.1927.43.no.429.p.11.)

= nana Pionneau.Echange.1928.44.no.434.p.14.

Small specimens of less than 35mm in the race serena Verity. Pionneau gave the further name nana to small specimens of the typical race which seems completely unnecessary [Goodson & Read].

ab. mosleyi (Oberthür.Lep.Comp.1909.3.p.343.,fig.Ento.10.p.265.)

= albobasilaris Frohawk.Vars.Brit.Butts.1938.p.12.pl.2.f.1.

On the forewing the black bar, normally running from the centre of the costa, is completely absent, leaving the median area completely white. Only the margins and basal area remain normal. On the hindwing the median black bar is also absent with the exception of its lower part which is indicated by black dusting more especially towards the base of the wing. The marginal white lunules on both wings are small. On the underside the black bar on the forewing and the black median band on the hindwing are absent as on the upperside. This is the homozygote of ab. aperta Rebel.

ab. nacrea (Oliver.Entom.1937.70.p.80.)

The ground colour Chinese white with no trace of the usual yellow or cream. Figured by Frohawk in Brit.Butts.pl.31.f.20.

ab. nicoleti (Culot.Bull.Soc.Lep.Gen.1905.1.p.69.pl.1.f.5.)

The upperside of the forewing almost devoid of white marginal spots, the hindwing completely so.

ab. nigra-malmediensis (Mellaerts.Lamb.1926.26.p.84.)

The description says, “More black. Deep black which gives it a more melanic character than the southern forms and races”. The description is of little use; it possibly means the black pattern is of a more intense black than in other races.

ab. nigrata (Schroder.Mitt.Bar.Ent.Ver.(1923-25)1924.1.pp.69-70.)

= nigra Frohawk.Vars.Brit.Butts.1938.p.35.pl.7.f.2.
= hades Reiss.Ent.Z.1961.71.pp.3-4.fig.

On the upperside the forewing is completely black, the hindwing equally darkened, only the pale basal patch and central band of patches stand out, although they are strongly blackish darkened. The hairs at the base and on the body are yellowish-grey. The underside, on the whole, is paler. Frohawk’s nigra would appear to be the same form. The figure shows the fore and hindwings completely blackened but the position of the normal white patches can be seen in a slightly lighter shade of black. Reiss’ hades is likewise completely blackened but the position of the white markings still discernible in a lighter shade. The description says all the normally white patches on the upperside of fore and hindwings are grey-blackish giving the impression of blackened wings, the black markings however still contrast. Fringes not black and white but grey-blackish. Basal hairs grey-black.

ab. nigrescens (Varin.Rev.Fr.Lep.1948.XI.p.358.pl.7.f.6.)

Upperside of fore and hindwing with the black marginal border much widened and lacking the usual white spots. On the forewing this border extends towards the mid-costal patch, connecting with it by a sprinkling of black scales. The oval patch in the cell is equally dusted over. The figure shows the apical group of white spots entirely absent and the upper part of the median white band heavily dusted over with blackish scales but still well defined. The oval spot at the base is also well dusted in the same manner. The hindwing, apart from the extra wide black border with no white spots, is normal.

ab. nigricans (Culot.Bull.Soc.Lep.Gen.1911.2.p.101.pl.10.f.4.)

An extension of the black marking on the upperside and the blackish powdering which covers certain parts of the light ground colour on the underside. The figure shows all the white markings smaller, especially the two middle spots of the median band which are mere points as in ab. valentini Williams. The oval basal spot is only half normal size. On the hindwing the white median band, as well as being much narrower, is not complete, the black of the margin encroaching and linking up with the black basal area near the inner margin. The oval white spot is also much smaller than normal. The white marginal lunules are present.

ab. ocellata (Zusanek.Z.Ost.Ent.Ver.1925.10.p.60.)

On the upperside of the hindwing the marginal band shows distinct white rings, in the males pupilled with black, in the females with blue. Normally these ocelli are not prominently ringed.

ab. perlongata (Stauder.Boll.Soc.Adriat.Sci.Nat.(1908)1911.25.(3).p.112.pl.2.f.4.)

On the underside of the hindwing in the two cells nearest the apex, the ocelli are strikingly elongated longitudinally, sometimes oval, sometimes wedge or pear-shaped. The length of these elongated eyes varies between 5 and 5mm.

ab. punctata (Grund.Soc.Ent.1908.23.p.82.)

On the upperside of the hindwing in the black outer margin there is a row of three to four pale blue spots. Described under subspecies procida but occurs in the typical race. Grund calls the form galathea ab. punctata.

ab. punctellata (Cabeau.Rev.Mens.Soc.Ent.Nam.1925.25.p.65.)

The apical eyespot of the forewing very tiny on both upper and underside; like the point of a needle.

ab. pura (Niepelt.Int.Ent.Z.1914.8.p.144.)

Upperside with the white colour extended and on the margin the white spots go right through, large and well developed. It is not clear what the latter part means, presumably the white is rayed outwards through the black marginal area. The underside is ab. galene Ochsenheimer, the author having taken the description in Seitz.Macrolep.1.p.115 as correct which is not so, galene has no spots on the underside [Goodson & Read].

ab. quasi-lugens (Oberthür.Lep.Comp.1909.3.p.347.,fig.Millière.Icon.1.pl.3.)

= nigerrima Kautz.Z.Ost.Ent.Ver.1931.16.p.86.pl.4.f.7.,Millière.Icon.1.pl.3.

Upperside of the forewing black-brown except for a remnant of the three white patches above the inner margin dusted with dark scales, and the basal oval mark almost obliterated with dark scales. The normal white markings of the hindwing are indicated clearly but all well dusted with dark scales, giving a greyish-cream impression. Kautz based his nigerrima on the same figure in Millière and on two other similar specimens figured on pl.4.figs.7 and 10 in Ost.Ent.Ver.vol.16. Millière gave the name ab. turcica Boisduval to his figure but turcica is an Asiatic race and the Millière specimen was from France.

ab. rubra (Mosley.Nat.Journ.Suppl.1896.p.16.)

= franzenaui Aigner.Ann.Hist.Nat.Mus.Nat.Hung.1906.4.p.512.
= albina Lhomme.Cat.Lep.France.1923.1.p.31.

The black markings replaced by rather pale red-brown. Lhomme’s albina had the black markings coffee coloured. Aigner’s franzenaui had the markings fawn-brown, upper and underside.

ab. semigalene (Stauder.Ent.Anz.1929.9.p.169.)

On the underside of the hindwing the ocelli are replaced by a few small dots.

ab. tornusdisjuncta (Verity.Farf.Di.It.1953.5.p.66.pl.58.f.38.)

The lower part of the black marginal band of the forewing, at the tornus, shows a white patch or crescent situated between the lowest white marginal lunule and the white median band from which it is separated only by a thin black line. This is a description of the figure; Verity’s description is far from clear [Goodson & Read].

ab. trimouleti (Dubordieu.Amat.Pap.1923.1.p.260.pl.5.f.5.)

On the upperside of the forewing the central black bar on the costa shows a thin white curved line, which is probably the discocellular vein, outlined in white. Also the thin black line, which normally crosses the white median band in veins 2 and 3, is absent, as in ab. fasciata Lambillion, making the band continuous.

ab. ulbrichi (Aigner.Rov.Lapok.1907.14.p.143.)

Seitz says this is the same as ab. leucolmelas Esper.

ab. valentini (Williams.Ent.Gaz.1951.2.p.247.pl.7.figs.1-5 and 8-10.)

The two central white spots of the median white band, which are situated nearest to the outer margin, are reduced considerably in size, thus the black costal bar runs straight through from the costa to the outer margin enclosing the two small white spots which vary much in size, sometimes almost absent but in the figures always slightly indicated. These spots are what Williams refers to in his rather misleading description as, “traces of ground colour”. Williams description reads, “In the new form the blotch last mentioned is extended distally and becomes confluent with the marginal markings. The aberration is in itself slightly variable in the extent to which there remain slight traces of the ground colour at the extremity of the extended blotch”.

ab. vidua (Stauder.Boll.Soc.Adriat.Sci.Nat.(1908)1911.25.(3).p.111.)

= quadriocellata Pionneau.Echange.1937.no.467.p.2.

On the underside of hindwing the eyespot in cell III3 / IV1, or also in both cells III3 / IV1 and IV1 / IV2 are absent on both sides. The apical eye well developed, large, and like the hindwing ocelli, distinctly blue-white centered. The two cells mentioned are those immediately beneath the cell in which there is normally no spot so that only four spots remain counting the double one at the anal anle as two spots. Pionneau’s quadriocellata had the ocelli of the hindwing reduced to four instead of the usual six.

ab. vispardi (Jullien.Bull.Soc.Lep.Gen.1907.1.p.167.pl.6.f.1.)

On the upperside of the hindwing in normal specimens the black median band surrounding the cell shows a protruding black square stretching out from the discoidal. In this form this black square contains a white patch, in the form of a triangle. A very feeble character. The black square is so small that the white triangle in it can easily be missed [Goodson & Read].

ab. vitrimontis (Kesseler.Rev.Fr.Lep.1945.10.p.70.pl.3.figs.1-2.)

Less extreme than either ab. mosleyi or aperta, the central costal bar being more prominent, it is very similar to a specimen figured in Frohawk’s Brit.Butts.pl.31.f.24. Upperside of forewing with the black central costal bar reduced to a T like mark, the top of the T parallel with the costa. The marginal black band somewhat reduced, with three very small middle lunules. Hindwing with the black median band surrounding the cell absent except for its lower part towards the base of the wing, the margins more or less normal. The underside is more impressive and different from either mosleyi or aperta. It is the underside, which Frohawk figures although no description of the upperside is given. On the underside of both fore and hindwing the normal marginal zigzag lines are completely absent. On the forewing the costal median black bar is very narrow, as on the upperside. On the hindwing all patterning is absent with the exception of the marginal ocelli, which only have a mere suggestion of their normal dusky surround.

ab. zobeli (Heinrich.Int.Ent.Z.1911.5.p.221.,fig.Dtsch.Ent.Z.1916.pl.4.f.2.)

On the hindwing upperside the upper part of the black marginal band fails, leaving a broader white area, only a small spot showing in its place.